A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z


Andersen, F. S. (1949)  On the subgenus Chironomus. Studies on the systematics and Biology of Chironomidae III.  Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. III: 1-66.

Atchley, W.R. & Martin, J. (1971)  A morphometric analysis of differential sexual dimorphism in larvae of Chironomus (Diptera).  Canadian Entomologist 103: 319-327.


Bugledich, E.-M.A., Cranston, P.S., & Martin, J. (1999)  Chironomidae, In: "Diptera: Nematocera" (Ed. E.-M.A. Bugledich)  Zoological Catalogue of Australia Vol. 30.1.   CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 112-158.


Chattopadhyay, S. Mazumdar, A. and Chaudhuri, P.K. (1991)  Life stages and biology of Chironomus samoensis (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India 61: 291-301.

Chaudhuri, P.K., Das, S.K., and Sublette, J.E. (1992)  Indian species of genus Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Zool. Jb. Syst. 119: 1-51.

Cranston, P.S. (2001)  Electronic Guide to Chironomidae of Australia.

Cranston, P.S. and Martin, J. (1989)  Family Chironomidae.  In: "Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian regions." (Ed. N.L.Evenhuis) Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu & E.J.Brill, Leiden: 252-274. Web based version:

Cranston, P.S., Martin, J., Mulder, M. and Spies, M. (2016) Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n., based on immature stages.  Zootaxa 4518: 491-506.


Devai, Gy., Miskolczi, M. and Wülker, W. (1989)  Standardization of chromosome arms B, C and D in Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Advances in Chironomidology. Part I.  Acta. Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 2: 79-92.

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Edward, D. H. D. (1964)  The Biology and Taxonomy of the Chironomidae of South-Western Australia.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Western Australia.

Edwards, F.W. (1928)  Nematocera.    In: Insects of Samoa.  Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History 6: 23-102.

Elbetieha, A. and K. Kalthoff (1988)  Anterior determinants in embryos of Chironomus samoensis: Characterization by rescue bioassay.  Development 104: 61-75.

Epler, J. H. (1988)  Biosystematics of the genus Dicrotendipes Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) of the World.  Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 36: 1-214.

Epler, J.H. (1995)  Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida.  Revised Edition.  Florida Dept. Env. Protect. 1-320.


Freeman, P. (1961)  The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Australia.  Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 611-737.


Guryev, V., Makarevitch, I., Blinov, A. and Martin, J. (2001).  Phylogeny of the genus Chironomus (Diptera) inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I.  Molecular Phylogeny & Evololution 19: 9-21. (


Harnisch, O. (1942)  Die sogenannten "Blutkiemen" der Larven der Gattung Chironomus Mg.  Biologia Generalis 16: 593-609.

Hashimoto, H. (1984)  Notes on Chironomus javanus Kieffer from Japan.  Proc. Jap. Soc. Syst. Zool. 29: 24-29.

Hashimoto, H., Wongsiri, T., Wongsiri, N., Tirawat, C., Lewvanich, A., and Yasumatsu, K. (1981)  Chironominae from rice fields of Thailand with descriptions of 7 new species.  Tax. Br. Ent. & Zool. Div., Dept. Agr. Bangkok, Tech. Bull. 007: 1-47.




Kalisch, W.-E. (1982)  EM chromosome mapping using surface spread polytene chromosomes.  Genetica 60: 21-24.

Kalisch, W.-E. & Hägele, K. (1981)  Surface spreading of polytene chromosomes.  Eur. J. Cell Biol. 23: 317-320.

Kalisch, W.-E. & Hägele, K. (1982)  A new spreading technique for polytene chromosomes and its efficiency for autoradiography including in situ hybridization, pp. 1-10.  In: Lakovara, S. (ed.) "Advances in Genetics, Development, and Evolution of Drosophila", Plenum Publishing Co.

Keyl, H.-G. (1962)  Chromosomenevolution bei Chironomus II. Chromosomenumbauten und phylogenetische Beziehungen der Arten.   Chromosoma 13: 464-514. (

Kieffer, J. J. (1906)  In Wytsman "Genera Insectorum" Fasc. 42. Diptera, fam. Chironomidae. (Bruxelles).

Kieffer, J. J. (1917)  Chironomides d'Australia conservé au Musée national hongrois de Budapest.  Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Hung. 15: 175-228.

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Lentzios, G., & Stocker, A. J. (1979)  Nucleolar relationships in some Australian Chironomus species.  Chromosoma 75: 235-258.

Lentzios, G., Stocker, A. J. & Martin, J. (1980)  C-banding and chromosome evolution in some related species of Australian Chironominae.  Genetica 54: 51-68. (


MacQuart, J. (1847)  Diptères exotiques nouveaux peu connus. 2e Suppl.  Mém. Soc. r. Sci. agric., Arts Lille: 21-120.

Martin, J. (1961)  Chromosomal Polymorphism in Victorian Chironomids  M.Sc. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 224pp.

Martin, J. (1966)  Population Genetics of Chironomids  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Melbourne, 449pp.

Martin, J. (1967)  Meiosis in inversion heterozygotes in Chironomidae.  Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 9: 255-268.(a href="

Martin, J. (1969a)  The salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus oppositus Walker (Diptera: Nematocera).  Aust. J. Zool. 17: 473-486. (

Martin, J. (1969b)  On the origin of inversion polymorphism.  Amer. Nat. 103: 267-275. (

Martin, J. (1971a)  A review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae) II.  Added descriptions of Chironomus cloacalis Atchley and Martin from Australia.Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(2): 1-21.

Martin, J. (1971b)  A review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae). IV. The karyosystematics of the australis group in Australia.  Chromosoma 35: 418-430. (

Martin, J. (1974)  Review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae).  IX.  The cytology of Chironomus tepperi Skuse.  Chromosoma 45: 91-98. (

Martin, J. (1979)  Chromosomes as tools in taxonomy and phylogeny of Chironomidae (Diptera).  Ent. Scand. Suppl. 10: 67-74.

Martin, J. (1980)  Location of a sex-determining region in Chironomus tepperi Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) using irradiation induced chromosomal rearrangements.  Genetica 57: 113-117. (

Martin, J. (2011a)  From bands to base pairs: Problems in the identification of species using the example of Chironomus oppositus Walker.  In: Wang, X,. & Liu, W., (eds.). "Contemporary Chironomid Studies - Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Chironomidae."  Nankai University Press, Tianjin, pp. 126-143.

Martin, J. (2011b)  Chironomus samoensis is a complex of species.  Chironomus Journal of Chironomidae Research 24: 11-17. (

Martin, J., Chung, H., Balakrishnan, T., & Robin, C. (2010)  Preliminary Physical Maps of the Chironomus Genome, with a Focus on Genes Potentially Involved in Response to Heavy Metals.  In: Ferrington, L. C., Jr. (ed.). "Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae."  Chironomidae Research Group, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, pp. 222-234.

Martin, J., & Cranston, P.S. (1995)  Description of Chironomus maddeni n. sp.  Addendum to paper by Madden, C. et al.  In: Cranston, P.S. (ed.). "Chironomids: from Molecules to Ecosystems."  CSIRO, Australia: 94-100.

Martin, J., Kuvangkadilok, C., Peart, D.H., & Lee, B.T.O. (1980)  Multiple sex determining regions in a group of related Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Heredity 44: 367-382. (

Martin, J. & Lee, B.T.O. (1981)  Problems in speciation of Chironomus oppositus Walker in southeastern Australia.  In: "Evolution and Speciation.  Essays in Honor of M.J.D.White."  (Eds. W.R.Atchley & D.S.Woodruff):  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.241-261.

Martin, J. & Lee, B.T.O. (1984)  A phylogenetic study of sex determiner location in a group of Australasian Chironomus species (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Chromosoma 90: 190-197. (

Martin, J. & Porter, D.L. (1977)  Laboratory biology of the rice midge, Chironomus tepperi Skuse (Diptera: Nematocera).  Mating behaviour, productivity and attempts at hybridization.  J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 16: 411-416.

Martin, J. & Saxena, S. (2009)  Synonymy of Chironomus plumatisetigerus Tokunaga, 1964, with Chironomus circumdatus Kieffer, 1916.  Chironomus 22: 14. (

Martin, J., Wülker, W. & Sublette, J.E. (1974)  Evolutionary cytology of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(12): 1-12.

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Peck, M.R., Klessa, D.A. & Baird, D.J. (2002)  A tropical sediment toxicity test using the Dipteran Chironomus crassiforceps to test metal bioavailability with sediment pH change in tropical acid-sulfate sediments.  Env. Toxicol. & Chem. 21: 720-728.

Phillips, A.M., Martin, J. & Bedo, D.G. (1999)  In Situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and other Dipteran species.  In: "In situ Hybridization Protocols, 2nd Edition." (Ed.I.A.Darby)  Methods in Molecular Biology Vol. 123,  Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ., pp. 83-102.

Pinder, L.C.V. and Reiss, F. (1983)  10. The larvae of Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses  Ent. scand. Suppl. 19: 293-435.

Porter, D.L. (1974)  Parthenogenesis, chromosomal polymorphism and morphological variation in chironomids.  Ph. D. Thesis, University of Melbourne.

Pramual, P., Simwisat, K. and Martin, J. (2016)  Identification and reassessment of the specific status of some tropical freshwater midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) using DNA barcode data.  Zootaxa 4702: 39-60 (

Proulx, I., Martin, J., Carew, M. and Hare, L.(2013)  Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species in eastern Canadian lakes.  Zootaxa 3741: 401-458. (

Prud´homme, B., Gompel, N., Rokas, A., Kassner, V.A., Williams, T.M., Yeh, S.-D., True, J.R. & Carroll, S.B. (2006)  Repeated morphological evolution through cis-regulatory changes in a pleiotropic gene.  Nature 440: 1050-1053.




Sæther, O.A. (1980)  Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Ent. scand. Suppl. 14: 151.

Saxena, S. (1995)  Basic patterns in the chromosome evolution of the genus Chironomus (Diptera): Polytene chromosomes of the three Indian species C. plumatisetigerus, C. calipterus and Chironomus species. pp. 39-48 in: Cranston, P.S., ed. Midges: from Molecules to Ecosystems.  Proceedings 12th International Symposium on Chironomidae, Canberra, A.C.T. C.S.I.R.O., 482pp.

Schmitz, R.-P. (1982)  Elektronenoptische Darstellung von gespreiten Polytänchromosomen aus verschiedenen Geweben bei Chironomus tepperi.  Staatsprüfung Diplom Report, Institut für Genetik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum, Germany, 28pp.

Shobanov, N.A. (2002)  Evolution of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae): 1. Ancestral form and main trends of phylogeny.  Entomological Review 82: 487-493.

Skuse, F.A.A. (1889)  Diptera of Australia.    Part VI. The Chironomidae.  Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales (Ser. 2) 4: 215-311.

Strenzke, K. (1959).  Revision der Gattung Chironomus MEIG.  I.  Die Imagines von 15 norddeutschen Arten und Unterarten.  Arch. Hydrobiol 56: 1-42.

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Tokunaga, M. (1936)  Chironomidae of Japan (Diptera), VII New species and a new variety of the genus Chironomus Meigen.  Philipp. J. Sci. 60: 71-85 + 4 plates.

Tokunaga, M. (1964)  Chironomidae of Micronesia.  Insects of Micronesia 12: 485-628.



Vallenduuk, H.J. & Moller Pillot, H.K.M. (1997)  Key to the larvae of Chironomus in Western Europe.  RIZA Rapport 97.053: 1-13 + appendices.


Walker, F.  "Insecta Saundersiana." Dipt. Pt. 5, London.

Webb, C. J. & Scholl, A. (1985)  Identification of larvae of European species of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) by morphological characters.  Syst. Entomol. 10: 353-372.

Wülker, W. (1980)  Basic patterns in the chromosome evolution of the genus Chironomus (Diptera).  Z. f. zool. Syst. u. Evolutionsf. 18: 112-123.

Wülker, W., Dévai, Gy. and Dévai, I. (1989)    Computer assisted studies of chromosome evolution in the genus Chironomus (Dipt.).  Comparative and integrated analysis of chromosome arms A, E and F.    Acta Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 2: 373-387.

Wülker, W.F., Sublette, J.E., Sublette, M.R. and Martin, J. (1971)  A review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae). I. The staegeri group.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(1): 1-89.



Yamamoto, M. (2002)  Austrochironomus, a subgenus of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Abstracts 5th Internl. Congr. Dipterology, Brisbane, 2002: 144.


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