C. flaviplumus Tokunaga immatures

Larva: a medium sized plumosus-type larva (length about 14.0-14.8 mm.).

Anterior ventral tubules (1.14-1.20 mm.) shorter than posterior pair 1.40-(1.52 mm.).  Anal tubules long and cylindrical, about 2.3-3.2 times longer than wide, ventral pair possibly slightly shorter and thicker (260 x 100; 250 x 110 micron).
Gula pale or very slightly darkened on posterior third;  frontoclypeus slightly dark to dark.
Mentum (Fig. b) with square sharp teeth, c2 teeth of central trifid tooth well separated from c1 tooth (type III), 4th laterals slightly reduced (type I-II).
Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 16-21 variable but sharp teeth.  Ventromentum (Fig. c) with about 29-36 striae; VMR 0.27-0.38.
Antenna (Fig. d) with a moderately long basal segment, which is about 4-4.5 times as long as wide; RO about a third to 2/5 up from base; AR about 1.75-1.96.  Antennal proportions: 122 : 31 : 10 : 13 : 6.
Distance between antennal bases possibly greater than that between the S4 setae.
Mandible (Fig. e) with third inner tooth only partly separated and darkened (Type IA-IIB), and with about 12-14 furrows on outer surface at the base; about 10-12 taeniae in Pecten mandibularis.

Cytology:  4 polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi arm combination AE, BF, CD, G.
Nucleolus virtually terminal in arm G;  well developed BR about one third from the other end, and a smaller BR close to this other end;  closely paired.
A nucleolus also occurs near the characteristic bands of arm F.  Arm A of Australian C. "orientalis" differs from that of this species by a complex inversion, and arm F by possibly a simple inversion.
Polymorphism in arms C and G.
flaA1:    1a-i, 2k-d, 9e - 4a, 13a - 14i, 3h-i, 12c - 10a, 2c - 1k, 3a-g, 15 - 19            (Japan)
flaB1:    Puff with distal dark bands (groups 8-7?) about the middle of the arm
flaC1:    Characteristic band groups 3-4 about one quarter from distal end.
flaC2:    Differs by a small terminal inversion, distal of characteristic band groups 3-4.
flaE1:    1 - 3e, 10b - 3f, 10c - 13                                                                    as halophilis, etc.
flaF1:    1 -2a, 10d-a, 15 - 11, 2b - 9, 16 - 23
flaG1:    Virtually terminal nucleolus, two BRs as noted above.
flaG2:    Simple inversion of most of the chromosome, bringing the large BR close to the nucleolus.

Pupa: Exuvia length about 7.8 mm (Males 7.0-7.5 mm).  Spur commonly with 3 spines, but range from 1-5 (Sasa 1978).

Chromosome arms A, E and F were described by Wülker et al. (1989) as C. samoensis.  However, some sequences of Australian specimens are not the same, although closely related.
Indian specimens described by Chattopadhyuy et al. (1991) also do not appear to be the same species, as the LR is reported as 1.4; the ant. Ta5 is only about 0.25-0.28 length of Ti, and the frontal tubercles are only about 18-25 micron.  The Indian material is also cytologically distinct.  However the mtCOI sequence is very similar to those of C. flaviplumus Type B, and a specimen from Bishnah wetlands, Jammu and Kashmir is particularly close.

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Modified: 5 March 2019
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