C. bicoloris Tokunaga, 1964

Larva: a medium sized plumosus-type larva.  The gross larval measurements are available for only a single female larvae, as other larvae were reared to obtain associated life stages.  This female was about 15.2 mm.in length; anterior Ventral tubules (1.06 mm) shorter than posterior pair (1.40 mm); lateral tubules about 320 µm.  No information was obtained on the anal tubules.
Head capsule characters were obtained from 4 specimens: Gula pale or slightly darkened;  frontoclypeus pale or very slightly darkened.  Anterior ventral tubules (1.06 mm) shorter than posterior pair (1.40 mm); lateral tubules about 320 µm.
Mentum (Fig. b) with sculpturing along ventral surface and relatively sharp broad teeth; c2 teeth of central trifid tooth well separated from c1 tooth (type IB-IIA), 4th laterals slightly reduced (type I); 6th laterals arising below level of the other teeth.
Ventromentum (Fig. c) about 213.3 (183-239) µm wide and 3.4-4 times wider than deep; with about 38.8 (36-43) striae; distance between VM plates about 0.33 (0.28-0.36) of mentum width; VMR about 0.30 (0.25-0.33).
Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 16.8 (16-18) teeth (type B).  Premandible essentially type B1, with a broad inner tooth coming to a broad point, and a narrow outer tooth, which comes to a fine point; inner tooth about 5.8 (4.5-7) times wider than the outer tooth.
Distance between the antennal bases (175-180 µm) probably greater than that between the S4 setae (142-168 µm), which are separated by about 80% of FC width at that point.
Antenna (Fig. d) with basal segment about 3.2 (2.9-3.7) times longer than wide, RO about a third up from base; AR about 2.09 (2.0-2.18; A2/A1 about 0.19-0.20; antennal proportions: 111 : 29 : 6 : 13 : 6.
Mandible (Fig. e) with third inner tooth only slightly separated and darkened (Type IA-IB), and with about 20 (13-24) furrows on outer surface at the base and about 11.6 (7-14) taeniae in the Pecten mandibularis, which appears to run down and away from the inner teeth (just visible in Fig. e); Mdt-Mat about 28-30 µm; MTR about 0.36 (0.33-0.38).

Cytology:  4 polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi arm combination AE, BF, CD, G.  Centromeres heterochromatic.
Arm G closely paired with a small subterminal nucleolus.  Main nucleolus near middle of arm C.
Polymorphism at least in arm A.

bicA1:    1 - 2c, 10 - 12, 3i - 2d, 9 - 4, 13 - 19                                              as holomelas?
bicA2:    approx 1 - 2c, 10 - 12, 3ih, 6 - 9, 2d - 3g, 5 - 4, 13 - 19
bicB1:    typical bands (groups 23-28) near centromere, puff of group 7 near middle of arm
bicC1:    Nucleolus near middle of the arm with groups 3-4 immediately distal to it.
bicE1:    possibly 1 - 3a, 5 - 10b, 4h - 3f, 10c - 13                                        i.e. as in aprilinus, atrella, athalassicus
bicF1:    Groups 9-7, 14-15 about 1/3 from end of arm.
bicG1:    Small subterminal nucleolus, with a BR between the nucleolus and the centromere and another proximal of the middle of the arm.

Pupa:  Not previously described.  One male and one female exuvia are available.  Colour yellow brown, with darker yellow brown cephalothorax and muscle scars. Shagreen sparse in centre of TI, on posterior 2/3 of TII, posterior 3/4 on TIII and TIV, 5/6 on TV, more midline constrained on TVI, mainly on centre line of TVII but with gap along midline, and sparse on anterior with gap in midline of TVIII.
Length about 6.75 mm (male) and 7.07 mm (female), inner margin of wing case 1.42(f)-1.59(m) mm.  inner margin of wing case 1.59 mm.  Cephalic tubercles small, 53 x 46 µm (male) (below); 45x50 µm (female), with subterminal seta at least 43-53 µm. Female antennal sheath about 660 µm.
Basal scar 122 x 68 µm, slightly narrowed in middle, and respiratory base filling almost whole space; HR about 1.71-1.96.  Irregular patch lateral/ventral of scar, about 150x75 µm in size.
L-seta at anterior margin of intersegment of III/IV not seen, on IV/V about 56 µm long.
Hook row of segment II occupying about 76-79% of segment width, 92-94 simple recurved hooks.
Pedes spurii B relatively large on segment II, small on segment III; large Pedes spurii A (PSA) on segment IV (abt 151-177 x 101-110 µm) about 26-32% of the segment length.  PSA on segment V still relatively large; that on segment VI small with just spines.
Caudolateral spurs of segment VIII have 1-2 spines.  About 72 (male)-83 (female) taeniae, initially uniserial, then partly biserial, with some places triserial, on each side of swim fin.

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Modified: 23 November 2023
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