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Acton, A.B. (1962)  Incipient taxonomic divergence in Chironomus (Diptera)?  Evolution 16: 330-337.

Acton, A.B., and Scudder, G.G.E. (1971)  The zoogeography and races of Chironomus (=Tendipes) tentans Fab.  Limnologica 8: 83-92.

Amora, G., Hamada, N., Fusari, and Andrade-Souza, V. (2015)  An Asiatic chironomid in Brazil: morphology, DNA barcode and bionomics.  ZooKeys 514: 129-144.

Andersen, F.S. (1949)  On the subgenus Chironomus. Studies on the systematics and Biology of Chironomidae III.  Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. III: 1-66.

Anderson, J.F., and Hitchcock, S.W. (1968)  Biology of Chironomus atrella in a tidal cove.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 1597-1603.

Ashe, P. and Cranston, P.S. (1990)  Family Chironomidae.  In: A. Soos and L. Papp (eds) "Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 2. Psychodidae - Chironomidae" Elsevier. Amsterdam, p. 113-355.

Atchley, W.R. and Martin, J. (1971)  A morphometric analysis of differential sexual dimorphism in larvae of Chironomus (Diptera).  Canad. Entomol. 103: 319-327.


Bates, N.M. and Stahl, J.B. (1985)  Effect of pH and total ion concentration on growth rate of Chironomus nr. maturus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from an acid strip-mine lake.  Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci. 78: 127-132.

Bath, J.L. and Anderson, L.D. (1969)  Larvae of seventeen species of chironomid midges from southern California (Diptera).  J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 42: 154-176.

Beck, W.M.Jr., and Beck, E.C. (1970)  The immature stages of some Chironomini (Chironomidae).  Quart. J. Florida Acad. Sci. 33: 29-42.

Beyer, (1941)  Iowa non-biting midges. Mimeographed.  (quoted in Townes (1945).

Biever, K.D. (1965)  A rearing technique for the colonization of chironomid midges.  Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 58: 135-136.

Biever, K.D. (1971)  Effect of diet and competition in laboratory rearing of chironomid midges.  Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64: 1166-1169.

Blaylock, B.G. (1971)  The production of chromosome aberations in Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) by tritiated water.  Canad. Ent. 103: 448-453.

Blaylock, B.G., Auerbach, S.I. and Nelson, D.J. (1964)  Chromosomal aberrations in a natural population of Chironomus tentans exposed to chronic low-level environmental radiation.  Oak Ridge Natl. Lab. Rpt. ORNL-3531: 1-77.

Bolton, M.J. (2012)  Ohio EPA supplemental keys to the larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Ohio and Ohio Chironomidae checklist.  Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Surface Water, 111pp.

Branch, H.E. (1923)  The life history of Chironomus cristatus Fabr. with descriptions of the species.  J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. : 15-30 + plates.

Butler, M.G. (1982)  Morphological and phenological delimitation of Chironomus prior sp. n. and C. tardus sp. n. (Diptera: Chironomidae), sibling species from arctic Alaska.  Aquatic Insects, 4: 219-235. (DOI: 10.1080/01650428209361108)

Butler, M.G. and Kiknadze, I.I. (2013)   Chironomus tigris, sp. nov., a Nearctic species with a unique larva and karyotype.  (In preparation).

Butler, M.G., Kiknadze, I.I., Cooper, J.K., and Siirin, M.T. (1995)  Cytologically identified Chironomus species from lakes in North Dakota and Minnesota, USA, pp. 31-37, In: Cranston, P.S., ed.,"Chironomids, from Gene to Ecosystems", CSIRO, Canberra.

Butler, M.G., Kiknadze, I.I, Golygina, V.V., Martin, J., Istomina, A.G., Wuelker, W.F., Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (1999)  Cytogenetic differentiation between Palearctic and Nearctic populations of the Holarctic species Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Genome 42: 797-815.

Butler, M.G., Kiknadze, I.I, Golygina, V.V., Istomina, A.G., Wuelker, W.F., Martin, J., Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (2000)  Macrogeographic patterns of banding sequences in Holarctic Chironomus plumosus L., pp. 51-57, In: Hoffrichter, O., ed., "Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae: an Anthology from the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae", Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 621pp.


Caldwell, B.A., Hudson, P.L., Lenat, D.R. and Smith, D.R. (1997)    A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States.  Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 123: l-53.

Cannings, R.A. (1975)   A new species of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) from saline lakes in British Columbia.  Canad. Ent. 107: 447-450.

Cannings, R.A. & Scudder, G.G.E. (1978)  The littoral Chironomidae (Diptera) of saline lakes in central British Columbia.  Canad. J. Zool. 56: 1144-1155.

Chordas III, S.W., Hudson, P.L. & Chapman, E.G. (2004)  Additions to the aquatic Diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas.  J. Arkansas Academy of Science 58: 37-45.

Contreras-Lichtenberg, R. (1982)  Ein beitrag zur kenntnis von Goeldichironomus (Chironomus) carus (Townes) 1945 (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Spixiana 5: 175-180.

Correia, L.C.da S., and Trivinho-Strixino,S. (2007)   New species of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) from Brazil.  Zootaxa 1504: 53-68, and Erratum 1527: 67-68.

Cranston, P.S., Webb, C.J. and Martin, J. (1990)  The saline nuisance chironomid Carteronica longilobus (Diptera: Chironomidae): a systematic reappraisal.  Systematic Entomology 15: 401-432.

Credland, P.F. (1973a)  The taxonomic status of Chironomus riparius Meigen and Chironomus thummi Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Journal of Natural History 7: 209-216.

Credland, P.F. (1973b)  A new method for establishing a permanent laboratory culture of Chironomus riparius Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Freshwater Biology 3: 45-51.


Devai, Gy., Miskolczi, M. and Wülker, W. (1989)  Standardization of chromosome arms B, C and D in Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae).  In: Devai, Gy., ed., "Advances in Chironomidology. Part I." Acta. Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 2: 79-92.

Deiner, K., Knapp, R.A., Bolano, D.M. and May, B. (2013)  Increased accuracy of species lists developed for alpine lakes using morphology and cytochrome oxidase I for identification of specimens.  Mol. Ecol. Resour. 13: 820-831.

Dinsmore, W.P. and Prepas, E.E. (1997)  Impact of hypolimnetic oxygenation on profundal macroinvertebrates in a eutrophic lake in central Alberta. II. Changes in Chironomus spp. abundance and biomass.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54: 2170-2181.

Driver, E.A. (1971)  Range extensions and habitat data of two Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Saskatchewan.  Canadian Entomologist 103: 1017-1019.

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Edwards, F.W. (1929)  British non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 77: 279-430.

Egan, A.T and Ferrington, L.C.,Jr. (2015)  Chironomidae in freshwater rock pools at Isle Royale, Michigan.  Trans Amer. Ent. Soc. 141: 1-25.

Epler, J.H. (1995)  Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida.  Revised Edition.  Florida Dept. Env. Protect. 1-320.

Epler, J.H. (2001)  Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina.  John H. Epler.

Epler, J.H., Ekrem, T and Cranston, P.S. (2013)  2. The larvae of the Holarctic Chironomidae – Morphological terminology and key to subfamilies.  In: Andersen, T., Cranston, P. S. and Epler, J. H. (Sci. eds): The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic region - Keys and diagnoses.  Insect Systematics & Evolution, Suppl. 66: 13-24; Lund, Sweden 30 Apr. 2013. ISSN 2001-4945.


Firling, C.E. and Kobilka, B.K. (1979)  A medium for the maintenance of Chironomus tentans salivary glands in vitro.  J. Insect Physiol. 25: 93-103.

Fittkau, E.J. (1965)  Revision der von E. Goeldi aus dem Amazongebiet beschriebenen Chironomiden (Diptera).  Chironomidenstudien X.   Beitr. neotrop. Fauna 4: 209-226.

Fittkau, E.J. (1968)  Chironomus strenzkei n. sp. (Chironomidae, Dipt.), ein neues Laboratoriumstier.  Z. Morph. Tiere 63: 239-250.

Frouz, J., Ali, A. and Lobinske, R.J. (2002)  Influence of temperature on developmental rate, wing length, and larval head capsule size of pestiferous midge Chironomus crassicaudatus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 699-705.


Goeldi, E.A. (1905)  Os mosquitos no Pará.  Mems. Mus paraense Hist. nat. Ethnogr. 4: 134-139.

Golygina, V.V. and Kiknadze, I.I. (2008)  The revision of chromosome I (AB) mapping in Chironomus plumosus group (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Comp. Cytogen. 2: 37-55.

Gray, E.W., Royals, C., Epler, J.H., Wyatt, R.D., Brewer, B. and Noblet, R. (2012)  Chironomus calligraphus (Diptera: Chironomidae), a new pest species in Georgia.   J. Amer. Mosqu. Control Assoc. 28: 258-259.

Grimshaw, P. H. (1901)  Diptera.  In Fauna Hawaiiensis (ed. D. Sharp) 3 (1): 1-77.

Grodhaus, G. and Ferrington, L.C.,Jr. (1989)  The occurrence of Chironomus (Lobochironomus) mendax Storå in North America.  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 62: 292-293.

Gunderina, L.I., Kiknadze, I.I., Aimanova, K.G., Istomina, A.G., Proviz, V.I., Salova, T.A., Rakisheva, A.Zh. and Butler, M.G. (1996)  Cytogenetic differentiation of natural and laboratory populations of Camptochironomus tentans Fabricius (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Russian J. Genet. 32: 45-57.

Guryev, V.P. and Blinov, A.G. (2002)  Phylogenetic relationships among Holarctic populations of Chironomus entis and Chironomus plumosus in view of possible horisontal transfer of mitochondrial genes.  Russian J. Genet. 38: 239-243.

Guryev, V.P., Makarevitch, I., Blinov, A.G. and Martin, J. (2001)  Phylogeny of the genus Chironomus (Diptera) inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19: 9-21.


Hägele, K. (1985)  Identification of a polytene chromosome band containing a male sex determiner of Chironomus thummi thummi.  Chromosoma 91: 167-171.

Hamilton, A.L. (1965)  An analysis of a freshwater benthic community with special reference to the Chironomidae.  Appendix II  Taxonomy of the Chironomidae of Marion Lake, British Columbia.  Dept. Zoology, Univ. Brit. Columb.: 1-216.

Hardy, D. E. (1960)  Diptera: Nematocera - Brachycera (except Dolichopodidae).  In: E.C. Zimmerman (ed.) Insects of Hawaii Vol. 10.

Harp, G.L. and Campbell, R.R. (1967)  The distribution of Tendipes plumosus (Linné) in mineral acid water.  Limnol. Ocean. 12: 260-263.

Harp, G.L. and Hubbard, R.D. (1972).  Limnology of four bauxite open-pit lakes.  Ark. Acad. Sci. Proc. 26: 47-51.

Hein, J. and Schmulbach, J.C. (1971)  Intraspecific and interspecific breeding behavior of Chironomus pallidivittatus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Canad. Entomol. 103: 458-464.

Hilburn, L.R. (1979)  Population genetics of Chironomus stigmaterus Say (Diptera: Chironomidae) I. Cytogenetic variability in populations of the south-western United States.  Heredity 43: 219-228.

Hilburn, L.R. (1980)  Population genetics of Chironomus stigmaterus Say (Diptera: Chironomidae): II. Protein variability in populations of the southwestern United States.  Evolution 34: 696-704.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. and Narf, R.P. (1968)  Ecology of Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, and other benthos in fourteen Wisconsin lakes.  Annals Ent. Soc. America 61: 1173-1181.

Hirvenoja, M. and Michailova, P. (1997)  On the karyology and morphology of Chironomus jonmartini Lindeberg (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Entomol. Fenn. 8: 39-55.

Hirvenoja, M. and Michailova, P. (1998)  The karyotype and morphology of Chironomus brevidentatus sp. n. (Dipt. Chironomidae).  A species with a 'salinarius type' larva from northern Finland.  Ent. Fenn. 9: 225-236.

Hitchcock, S.W. and Anderson, J.F. (1968)   Field-plot tests with insecticides for control of Chironomus atrella.   J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 16-19.

Hribar, L.J., Epler, J.H., Martin, J. and Sublette, J.E. (2008)  Chironomus columbiensis (Diptera: Chironomidae) new to the fauna of the United States.   Florida Ent. 91: 470-471.

Hudson, P.L., Lenat, D.R., Caldwell, B.A. and Smith, D. (1990)    Chironomidae of the southeastern United States: A checklist of species and notes on biology, distribution and habitat.  U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv.,  Fish. Wildl. Res. 7: 1-46.



Jablonska-Barna, I., Michailova, P., Kownacki, A. and Langton, P. (2012)  The external morphology of Chironomus (s.str.) acerbiphilus Tokunaga, 1939 a senior synonym of C. crassimanus Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Poland.   Annales Zoologici 62: 633-638. (

Jablonska-Barna, I., Michailova, P., Kownacki, A. and Langton, P. (2010)  The karyotype of Chironomus acerbiphilus Tokunaga 1939 (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Poland.   Zootaxa 2359: 65-67.

Jernelov, A., Nagell, B. and Svenson, A. (1981)    Adaptation to an acid environment in Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Smoking Hills, Northwest Territories, Canada.    Holarct. Ecol. 4: 116-119.

Johannsen, O.A. (1905)  Aquatic nematocerous midges.  In: Needham, I.G., Morton, K.I., Johannsen, O.A. (eds) "May flies and midges of New York." Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 86: 76-327.

Johannsen, O.A. (1926)  Notes on the synonymy of some New York state Chironomidae.  Journal of the New York Entomological Society 34: 275-277.

Johannsen, O.A. (1938)  Aquatic Diptera. Part IV. Chironomidae: Subfamily Chironominae.  Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Expt. Stn. 210: 1-56.


Karmokov, M. K. (2019)  Karyotype characteristics, chromosomal polymorphism and gene COI sequences of Chironomus heteropilicornis Wuźlker, 1996 (Diptera, Chironomidae)from the South Caucasus.  Comparative Cytogenetics 13: 339-357. (

Keyl, H.-G. (1960)  Die cytologische Diagnostik der Chironomiden. II. Diiagnosen der Geschwisterarten Chironomus acidophilus n. sp. und Ch. uliginosus n. sp.  Arch. Hydrobiol. 57: 187-195.

Keyl, H.-G. (1962)    Chromosomenevolution bei Chironomus II. Chromosomenumbauten und phylogenetische Beziehungen der Arten.  Chromosoma 13: 464-514.

Keyl, H.-G. and Keyl, I. (1959)  Die cytologische Diagnostik der Chironomiden. I. Bestimmungstabelle für die Gattung Chironomus auf Grund der Speicheldrüsenchromosomen.  Arch. Hydrobiol. 56: 43-57.

Kiknadze, I.I., Aimanova, K.G., Butler, M. and Cooper, K. (1993)  The pattern of the reduction of the chromosome number in the chironomid evolution. (In Russian)  Tsitologiya 35: 96-104 + pl.

Kiknadze, I.I. and Broshkov, A.D. (2009) The karyotype and chromosomal polymorphism of the midge Chironomus melanescens Keyl, 1961 (Diptera, Chironomidae). (In Russian)  Euroasian. Ent. J. 8: 19-28.

Kiknadze, I.I., Butler, M.G., Aimanova, K.G., Gunderina, L.I. and Cooper, J.K. (1996a)  Geographic variation in the polytene chromosome pattern of the Holarctic midge Chironomus (Camptochironmus) tentans (Fabricius).  Can. J. Zool. 74: 171-191.

Kiknadze, I.I., Butler, M.G., Aimanova, K.G., Andreeva, E.N., Martin, J. and Gunderina, L.I. (1998a)  Divergent cytogenetic evolution in Nearctic and Palearctic populations of sibling species in the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer.  Canad. J. Zool. 76:361-376.

Kiknadze, I.I., Butler, M.G., Golygina, V.V., Istomina, A.G., Martin, J., Wuelker, W.F., Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (2000a)  Intercontinental karyotypic differentiation of Chironomus entis Shobanov, a Holarctic member of the C. plumosus-group (Diptera, Chironomidae).   Genome 43: 857-873.

Kiknadze, I.I., Butler, M.G., Golygina, V.V., Wuelker, W.F., Martin, J., Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (2000b)  Macrogeographic patterns of banding sequences in Holarctic Chironomus entis Shobanov.  In: Hoffrichter, O., ed. "Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae: An Anthology from the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae", Shaker Verlag, Aachen, pp. 135-141.

Kiknadze, I.I., Butler, M.G., Gunderina, L.I., Istomina, A.G., Gusev, V.D. and Nemytikova, L.A. (2010)    Chromosomal evolution of Nearctic and Palearctic Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae).   In: Ferrington, L. C., Jr., ed. "Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae", Chironomidae Research Group, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, pp. 203-221.

Kiknadze, I.I., Golygina, V.V., Broshkov, A.D., Gunderina, L.I., and Istomina, A.G. (2008)  Mystery of Chironomus dorsalis Meigen karyotype (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Comp. Cytogenet. 2: 21-35.

Kiknadze, I.I., Golygina, V.V., Istomina, A.G., and Gunderina, L.I. (2004).  Pattern of chromosomal polymorphism during population and species divergence in Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Siber. Ekol. Zhurn. 11: 635-651. (In Russian, English summary)

Kiknadze, I.I., Istomina, A.G., Golygina, V.V. (2012)  The karyotype and chromosomal polymorphism of the Holarctic species Chironomus "annularius" sensu Strenke, 1959 (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Euroasian Entomological Journal 11: 95-114.

Kiknadze, I.I., Istomina, A.G., Golygina, V. and Gunderina, L. (2016)  Karyotypes of Palearctic and Holarctic species of the genus Chironomus.  Novosibirsk Academic Publishing House "GEO", Novosibirsk, 490 pp. (unedited).

Kiknadze, I.I., Istomina, A.G., Gunderina, L.N., Salova, T.A., Aimanova, K.G. and Savvinov, D.D. (1996b)  Karyofund of the chironomids of the cryolitic zone of Yakutia.  Siberian Branch Russian Acad. Sci., Novosibirsk, 166pp. (In Russian)

Kiknadze, I.I., Istomina, A.G., and Salova, T.A. (2002)  The functional morphology of polytene chromosomes in the midge Chironomus pilicornis F. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the permafrost zone reservoirs.  Tsitologiya 44: 89-96 (In Russian, English summary).

Kiknadze, I.I., Shilova, A.I., Kerkis I.E., Shobanov, N.A., Zelenkov, N.I., Grebenchov, L.P., Istomina, A.G., and Prasolov, B.A. (1991).  Karyotype and morphology of larvae of the tribe Chironomini.  ATLAS, Novosibirsk, 114pp.

Kiknadze, I.I., Wuelker, W.F., Istomina, A.G., and Andreeva, E.N. (2005)  Banding sequence pool of Chironomus anthracinus Zett. (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Palearctic and Nearctic.  Euroasian Ent. J. 4: 13-27.

Kraemer, C., and Schmidt, E.R. (1993)  The sex determining region of Chironomus thummi is associated with highly repetitive DNA and transposable elements.  Chromosoma 102: 553-562.

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Langton, P.H. and Valenduuk, H.J. 2013.  The karyotype and morphology of all stages of Chironomus (Chaetolabis) macani Freeman, 1948 and Chironomus (Chaetolabis) bitumineus nom. nov. for C. (C.) macani Wiederholm, 1997 nec Freeman.  Lauterbornia 76: 11-18.

Langton, P.H. and Visser, H. (2003)  Chironomidae exuviae: a key to pupal exuviae of the West Palaearctic Region.  The World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series.

Laufer, H., Vafopoulou-Mandalos, X., Kuliawat, R. and Gundling, G. (1982)  Tissue-specific and gene-specific sites of hemoglobin synthesis in Chironomus.  In "Embryonic development, Part A: Genetic aspects." Alan R.Liss, Inc., New York: 327- 335.

Lindeberg, B. and Wiederholm, T. (1979)  Notes on the taxonomy of European species of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  In: Sæther, O. A., ed. "Recent development in chironomid studies (Diptera: Chironomidae)."  Ent. scand. Suppl. 10: 99-116.

Lindegaard, C. (2015)  17.7 Chironomidae.  In: Böcher, J., Kristensen, N. P., Pape, T. and Vilhelmsen, L., eds. "The Greenland Entomofauna.  An Identification Manual of Insects, Spiders and Their Allies", Brill, Leiden, pp. 436-549.

Lipina, N.N. (1939)  New forms of the young stages of Chironomidae found in the lakes of the Zaluchiye Sapropel Station (In Russian).  Trudy Labor. Genez. Sapropelia Otlozh Akad. Nauk SSSR 1: 89–107.


Malloch, J.R. (1915)  The Chironomidae or midges of Illinois, with particular reference to species occurring in the Illinois River.  Bull. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 10: 275-543.

Malloch, J.R. (1934)  III. Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Phoridae, Syrphidae, Oestridae, Piophilidae, Helomyzidae, Calliphoridae and Tachinidae. In: "The Exploration of Southampton Island, Hudson Bay, by G.M. Sutton Supposed by J.B. Semple 1929-1930." ed. W.J. Holland.  Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12: 13-32.

Martin, J. (1979)  Chromosomes as tools in taxonomy and phylogeny of Chironomidae (Diptera).  Ent. Scand. Suppl. 10: 67-74.

Martin, J. (2011a)  From bands to base pairs: Problems in the identification of species using the example of Chironomus oppositus Walker.  In: Wang, X., & Liu, W., (eds.). "Contemporary Chironomid Studies - Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Chironomidae."  Nankai University Press, Tianjin, pp. 126-143.

Martin, J. (2014)  Species of the subgenus Chaetolabis, Townes 1945 of the genus Chironomus, Meigen 1803 (Diptera: Chironomidae), from a cytogenetic perspective.  Zootaxa 3811 (3): 316-324.(

Martin, J. (2015)  Identification of Chironomus (Chironomus) melanescens Keyl, 1962 in North America.  CHIRONOMUS Journal of Chironomidae Research 28: 40-44. (

Martin, J. (2017)  Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau, 1968 is a junior synonym of C. striatipennis Kieffer, 1910.  CHIRONOMUS Journal of Chironomidae Research 30: 19-25. (

Martin, J. (2020)  Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1905 and C. hawaiiensis Grimshaw, 1901 are sibling species.  CHIRONOMUS Journal of Chironomid Research 33: 59-63.

Martin, J., Andreeva, E.N., Kiknadze, I.I., and Wülker, W.F. (2006)  Polytene chromosomes and phylogenetic relationships of Chironomus atrella (Diptera: Chironomidae) in North America.  Genome 49: 1384-1392.

Martin, J., Chung, H., Balakrishnan, T., and Robin, C. (2010)  Preliminary physical maps of the Chironomus genome, with a focus on genes potentially involved in response to heavy metals.  In: Ferrington, L. C., Jr. (ed.).  Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae. Chironomidae Research Group, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, pp. 222-234.

Martin, J., Guryev, V., and Blinov, A. (2002)  Population variability in Chironomus (Camptochironomus) species (Diptera, Nematocera) with a Holarctic distribution: evidence of mitochondrial gene flow.  Insect Mol. Biol. 11: 387-397.

Martin, J., and Lee, B.T.O. (1984)  Are there female heterogametic strains of Chironomus tentans Fabricius?  Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 26: 743-747.

Martin, J., Sublette, J.E., and Caldwell, B.A. (2010)  Description of Chironomus quinnitukqut, n. sp., closely related to the C. decorus group in North America, with characterization of an additional larval form from halobiontic habitats.  Zootaxa 2716: 29-41 & 2743: 68 (2011).

Martin, J., Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M. (1979)   Part III - Karyosystematics of selected Chironomidae of New Mexico. In: "Utilization of Chironomidae (Diptera) as a Water Quality Indicator Group in New Mexico." Technical Completion Report, New Mexico Energy Institute 32: 109-133.

Martin, J., Wülker, W. and Sublette, J.E. (1974)  Evolutionary cytology of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(12): 1-12.

Martin, J. and Wülker, W. (1971)  Inversion polymorphism in Chironomus staegeri Lundbeck.  Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 13: 306-321.  (

Martin, J. and Wülker, W. (1974)  Review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae). VIII. Cytology of Chironomus stigmaterus Say.   Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(11): 1-17.

Martin, J., Wülker, W. and Sublette, J.E. (1974)  Evolutionary cytology of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(12): 1-12.

Martin, S., Proulx, I. and Hare, L. (2008)  Explaining metal concentrations in sympatric Chironomus species.  Limnol. Oceanog. 53: 411-419.

Michailova, P. (1994)  The role of heterochromatin in the speciation of Family Chironomidae, Diptera.  Folia biologica (Kraków) 42: 79-87.

Michailova, P. (2014)  Polytene chromosomes and their significance for taxonomy, speciation and genotoxicology. Short Views on Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1: 331-353.

Michailova, P. and Fischer, J. (1986a)  Chironomus vancouveri sp. n. from Canada.  Reichenbachia 23: 99-106.

Michailova, P. and Fischer, J. (1986b)  Speciation within the plumosus group of the genus Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Z. f. zool. Syt. u. Evolutionsforsch. 24: 207-222.

Miller, R.B. (1941)  A contribution to the ecology of the Chironomidae of Costello Lake, Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.   University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series No. 49.  Pub. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab, No. 60: 7-63.

Morisch, U. and Wülker, W. (1987)  Formation of the cerci, abdominal segment X and postgenital plate in the genital imaginal discs of female larvae and pupae in Chironomus.  In Sæther, O.A. (ed) A conspectus of contemporary studies in Chironomidae (Diptera).  Contributions to the International Symposium on Chironomidae, Bergen, Norway.  Ent. scand. Suppl. 29: 91-96.

Morrow, J.A., Bath, J.L. and Anderson, L.D. (1968)  Descriptions and key to egg masses of some aquatic midges in Southern California (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Calif. Vector Views 15: 99-108.


Norland, R.L., Mulla, M.S., Pelsue, F.W., Ikeshoji, T. (1974): Conventional and new insecticides for the control of chironomid midges.  Proc Pap Calif Mosq Control Assoc 42: 181–183.


Oliver, D.R. (1971)  Description of Einfeldia synchrona n. sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Can. Ent. 103: 1591-1595.

Oliver, D.R. and Corbet, P.S. (1966)  Aquatic habitats in a high arctic locality: The Hazen Camp study area, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Operation Hazen.  D. Phys R.(G.) Hazen 26, Department of Defence, Ottawa, Canada, 114 pp. + illus.

Oliver, D.R., Dillon, M.E. and Cranston, P.E. (1990)  A catalog of Nearctic Chironomidae.  Res. Branch Agr. Canada, Publ. 1857/B: 1-89.

Orel (Zorina), O.V., Lobkova, L.E., Zhirov, S.V. and Petrova, N.A. (2015)  A new record of Chironomus (Chironomus) acidophilus Keyl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Uzon volcanic caldera (Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia), its karyotype, ecology and biology.  Zootaxa 3981: 177-192.


Pedersen, B.V. (1978)  Studies on the taxonomy of Chironomus islandicus (Kieffer, 1913) (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Ent. scand. 9: 309-311.

Phillips, A.M., Martin, J. and Bedo, D.G. (1999)  In Situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and other Dipteran species.  In: "In situ Hybridization Protocols, 2nd Edition." (Ed.I.A.Darby)  Methods in Molecular Biology Vol. 123, Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ., pp. 83-102.

Pinder, L.C.V. (1978)  A key to adult males of British Chironomidae (Pts 1 & 2).  Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication No. 37.  Titus Wilson & Son Ltd, Kendal, ISSN 0367-1887.

Pinder, L.C.V. and Reiss, F. (1983)  10. The larvae of Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the Holarctic region. Keys and diagnoses.  Ent. scand. Suppl. 19: 293-435.

Poulson, D.F. and Metz, C.W. (1938)  Studies on the structure of nucleolus forming regions and related structures in the giant salivary gland chromosomes of Diptera.  J. Morphol. 63: 363-395.

Proulx, I., Martin, J., Carew, M. and Hare, L. (2013)   Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species in eastern Canadian lakes.  Zootaxa 3741: 401-458. (



Rakisheva, A.Zh., Petrova, N.A., and Michailova, P.V. (2001)  Larval morphology and karyotypic characteristics of Chironomus jonmartini Lindeberg (Diptera, Chironomidae) from peripheral southern population (Mountain Kazakhstan).  Ent. Rev. 81: 1079-1085.

Rasmussen, J.B. (1984)  Chironomus (Camptochironomus) vockerothi n.sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Alberta, Canada.  Canad. Ent. 116: 1643-1646.

Ratnasingham, S. and Hebert, P. D. N. (2007).  BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System ( Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 355-364. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01678.x)

Rempel, J.G. (1936)  The life-history of Chironomus hyperboreus.   J. Biol. Bd. Canad. 2: 209-221.

Rempel, J.G., Naylor, J.M., Rothfels, K. and Ottonen, B. (1962)  The sex chromosome constitution of chironomid intersexes parasitized by nematodes.  Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 4: 92-96.

Roback, S.S. (1962):  Some new Tendipedidae from the Canal Zone.  Notulae nat. 355: 1–10.

Rodova, R.A. (1974)  Chironomid females (Diptera, Chironomidae) XI. Chironomus pilicornis Fabr.  BioI. Vnutr. Vod Inf. Byull. 21: 44-47, 1971. (In Russian)(Translation)

Rodrigues, G.C., Langton, P.H. and Scharf, B.W. (2009)  The pupal exuviae of Chironomus crassimanus Strenzke (Diptera: Chironomidae), an acid-resistant species from Germany.  Zootaxa 2026: 47-52.

Rosenberg, D.M., Bilyj, B. and Wiens, A.P. (1984)  Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from the littoral zone of reservoirs, with special reference to Southern Indian Lake, Manitoba.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41: 672-681.

Rothfels, K.H. and Fairlie, T.W. (1957)  The non-random distribution of inversion breaks in the midge Tendipes decorus.  Canad. J. Zool. 35: 221-263.(

Ryser, H.M., Wuelker, W., and Scholl, A. (1985)  Revision der Gattung Chironomus Meigen (Diptera) X: Lobochironomus n. subgen. (C. montuosus n. sp., C. storai Goetgh., C. mendax Storå).  Rev. Suisse Zool. 92: 385-404.


Sæther, O.A. (1980)  Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Ent. scand. Suppl. 14: 1–51.

Sæther, O.A. (2012)  The Chironomus group (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Lake Winnipeg, Canada.  Zootaxa 3275: 1-19.

Sasa, M. (1978)  A comparative study of adults and immature stages of nine Japanese species of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Res. Rep. natn. Inst. envir. Stud. 3: 1-68.

Schaller, L. and English, D.S. (1976)  Electrophoretic and cytogenetic studies of Chironomus utahensis.   J. Heredity 67: 300-302.

Shobanov, N.A. (1989a)  Morphological differentiation of Chironomus species of plumosus group (Diptera, Chironomidae). Larvae. (In Russian)  In: "Biology, Systematic and Functional Morphology of Freshwater Animals", Nauka, Leningrad, pp. 250-279.

Shobanov, N.A. (1989b)  Morphological differentiation of Chironomus species of plumosus group (Diptera, Chironomidae). Larvae.  Acta Biol. Debrec. Suppl. Oecol. Hung. 2: 335-344.

Shobanov, N.A. (2002)   Evolution of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae): 1. Ancestral form and main trends of phylogeny.  Entomological Review 82: 487-493.

Shobanov, N.A. (2005)  Morphological differentiation of species of the genus Chironomus Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), the Ch. plumosus group. Males.  Entomological Review 85(7): 715-728.

Shobanov, N.A., Kiknadze, I.I. and Butler, M.G. (1999)   Palearctic and Nearctic Chironomus (Camptochironomus) tentans Fabricius are different species (Diptera, Chironomidae).    Ent Scand. 30: 311-322.

Shobanov, N.A., Shilova, A.I., and Belyanina, S.I. (1996)   Extent and content of the genus Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae): review of world fauna, pp. 44-96 in Shobanov, N.A. & Zinchenko, T.D., eds., "Ecology, Evolution and Systematics of Chironomids" Inst.Biol. Inland Waters & Inst. Ecol. Volga Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tolyatti, Boruk, Russia, 178pp. (In Russian)

Shobanov, N.A., Wuelker, W.F., and Kiknadze, I.I. (2002)  Chironomus albimaculatus sp. n. and C. trabicola sp. n. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Polar Russia.  Aquat. Insects 24: 169-188.

Shrivastava, H.N. and Loughton, B.G. (1970)  The development of haemoglobins in Chironomus riparius (Meig.) (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Canadian J. Zoology 48: 563-568.

Spies, M. (2000)  Non-biting 'nuisance' midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) in urban southern California, with notes on taxonomy, ecology and zoogeography, pp. 621-628, in: Hoffrichter, O., ed., "Late 20th Century Research on Chironomidae: an Anthology from the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae", Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 621pp

Spies, M. (2011)  Typical types - a swan song? Observations on chironomids in the Linnean collections, and corresponding general considerations.  Chiron. Newsl. Chiron. Res. 24: 30-34.

Spies, M. and Reiss, F. (1996)  Catalog and bibliography of Neotropical and Mexican Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera).  Spixiana Suppl. 22: 61-119.

Spies, M. and Sæther, O.A. (2004)  Notes and recommendations on taxonomy and nomenclature of Chironomidae (Diptera).  Zootaxa 752: 1-90.

Spies, M., Sublette, J.E., Sublette, M.S., Wülker, W., Martin, J., Hille, A., Miller, M.A. and Witt, K. (2002)  Pan-American Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi (Diptera, Chironomidae): species or complex? Evidence from external morphology, karyology and DNA sequencing.  Aquatic Insects 24: 91-113.

Strenzke, K. (1959)  Revision der Gattung Chironomus MEIG. I. Die Imagines von 15 norddeutschen Arten und Unterarten.  Archiv für Hydrobiologie 56: 1-42.

Stur, E., and Ekrem, T. (2020)  The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Svalbard and Jan Mayen.  Insects 11: 183, (doi:10.3390/insects11030183)

Sublette, J.E. (1964)  Chironomidae (Diptera) of Louisiana I.  Systematics and immature stages of some lentic chironomids of West-Central Louisiana.  Tulane Studies in Zoology 11: 109-150.

Sublette, J.E. (1966)  Type specimens of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the American Museum of natural History.  J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 39: 1-32.

Sublette, J.E. and Mulla, M.S. (2000)  Chironomus strenzkei Fittkau - a new Pan-American distribution, with a review of recent similar additions to the Nearctic midges.  Spixiana 23: 145-149.

Sublette, J.E., Stevens,L.E. and Shannon, J.F. (1998)  Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, I. Systematics and ecology.  The Great Basin Naturalist 58: 97-146.

Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (1965)  Family Chironomidae (Tendipedidae).  - A catalog of the Diptera of America, north of Mexico.  U.S. Dept. Agric. Handb. 276: 142-181.

Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (1971)  B. Description of the immature stages and adults of the Chironomus staegeri group.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(1): 6-21.

Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (1974)  A review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae) V. The maturus-complex.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(8): 1-41.

Sublette, J.E. and Sublette, M.F. (1974)  A review of the genus Chirtonomus (Diptera, Chironomidae) VII. The morphology of Chironomus stigmaterus Say.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(10): 1-65.

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Thompson, P.E. (1971)  Male and female heterogamety in populations of Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Canad. Ent. 103: 369-372.

Thienemann, A. (1954)  Chironomus.  Leben, Verbreitung und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Chironomiden.  Binnengewässer 20: 834 pp + 31 pl.

Townes, H.K. (1945)  The Nearctic species of Tendipedini [Diptera, Tendipedidae (= Chironomidae)].  Amer. Midl. Nat. 34: 1-206.(



Vallenduuk, H.J. and Langton, P.H. (2010)    Description of imago, pupal exuviae and larva of Chironomus uliginosus and a provisional key to the larvae of the Chironomus luridus agg. (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Lauterbornia 70: 73-89.

Vallenduuk, H.J. and Moller Pillot, H.K.M. (1997)    Key to the larvae of Chironomus in Western Europe.  RIZA Rapport 97.053: 1-13 + appendices.


Walley, C.S. (1926)  New Canadian Chironomidae.  Canad. Ent. 58: 64-65.

Webb, C.J., Martin, J. and Wülker, W. (1987)  Ultrastructure of larval ventromental plates of European and North American representatives of Chironomus Meigen (subgenus Chaetolabis Townes) (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Ent. Scand. 18: 205-211.

Webb, C.J. and Scholl, A. (1985)  Identification of larvae of European species of Chironomus Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae) by morphological characters.  Syst. Entomol. 10: 353-372.

Webb, C.J. and Scholl, A. (1990)  The larval morphology of European Chironomus species C. acidophilus Keyl and C. crassimanus Strenzke (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Revue suisse Zool. 97: 31-48.

Webb, D.W. (1980)  Primary insect types in the Illinois Natural History Survey Collection, exclusive of the Collembola and Thysanoptera.  Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 32: 55-191.

White, D.S. and Ramsey, J.B. (2015)  Chironomus magnus, a new name for Chironomus major Wülker and Butler, with observations on its ecology.  Ent. News 125: 106-116.

Wiederholm, T. (1979)  Morphology of Chironomus macani Freeman, with notes on the taxonomic status of subg. Chaetolabis Town. (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Ent. scand. Suppl. 10: 145-150.

Williams, F.X. (1944)  Biological studies of Hawaiian water-loving insects.  Part III. Diptera or flies. D. Culicidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae.  Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 12: 149-197.

Wülker, W. (1973)  Revision der Gattung Chironomus Meig.  III. Europäische Arten des thummi-complexes.  Arch. Hydrobiol. 72: 356-374.

Wülker, W. (1980)  Basic patterns in the chromosome evolution of the genus Chironomus (Diptera).  Z. f. zool. Syst. u. Evolutionsf. 18: 112-123.

Wülker, W.F. (1987)  Der Karyotyp von Chironomus (Chaetolabis) macani (Diptera: Chironomidae).  Entomol. General. 12: 281-286.

Wülker, W.F. (1991a)  Chromosomal, morphological and biological differences between Chironomus tenuistylus Brundin and C. longistylus Goetghebuer (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Fennoscandia and the USA.  Ent. Scand. 22: 231-240.

Wülker, W.F. (1991b)  Chironomus fraternus sp. n. and C. beljaninae sp. n., sympatric sister species of the aberratus group in Fennoscandian reservoirs.  Ent. Fenn. 2: 97-109.

Wülker, W. (1996)  Chironomus pilicornis Fabricius, 1787 and C. heteropilicornis sp.n. (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Fennoscandian Reservoirs: karyosystematics and morphological results.  Aquat. Ins. 18: 209-221.

Wülker, W. (1998)  A Lobochironomus-species with 3 chromosomes (2n = 6) - the true Chironomus (Lobochironomus) mendax Storå (Diptera, Chironomidae).  J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 71: 304-314.

Wülker, W.F. (2007)  Two new Chironomus (Diptera)-species with fluviatilis-type larvae from the nearshore sandy sediments of Lake Michigan.- In   "Contributions to the Systematics and Ecology of Aquatic Diptera - A Tribute to Ole A. Sæther" (Ed. T. Andersen) Bergen Museum Skrifter, The Caddis Press, pp. 321-333.

Wülker, W. and Butler, M.G. (1983)  Karyosystematics and morphology of Northern Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Freshwater species with larvae of the salinarius-type.  Ent. Scand. 14: 121-136.

Wülker, W., Dévai, Gy. and Dévai, I. (1989b)  Computer assisted studies of chromosome evolution in the genus Chironomus (Dipt.). Comparative and integrated analysis of chromosome arms A, E and F.  Acta Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 2: 373-387.

Wülker, W. and Martin, J. (1974)  Review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae). VI. Cytology of the Chironomus maturus complex.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(9): 1-21.

Wülker, W.F. and Martin, J. (2000)  Northernmost Chironomus-karyotypes (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae).  Spixiana 23: 151-156.

Wuelker, W.F., Martin, J., Kiknadze, I.I., Sublette, J.E. and Michiels, S. (2009)  Chironomus blaylocki n.sp. and C. bifurcatus n.sp., North American species near the base of the decorus-group.  Zootaxa 2023: 28-46.

Wülker, W. and Morath, E. (1989)  South American Chironomus (Dipt). - karyotypes and their relationships to North America.  Acta Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 2: 389-397.

Wülker, W., Ryser, H.M. and Scholl, A. (1981) Revision der Gattung Chironomus Meigen (Dipt.) VI. C. holomelas Keyl, C. saxatilis n. sp., C. melanescens Keyl.  Revue suisse Zool. 88: 903-924.

Wülker, W., Sublette, J.E. and Martin, J. (1968)  Zur Cytotaxionomie nordamerikanischer Chironomus-Arten.  Ann. Zool. Fenn. 5: 155-158.(Translation)

Wülker, W., Sublette, J.E. and Martin, J. (1991)  Chironomus utahensis Malloch and Chironomus harpi new species and their karyosystematic relationships to other species in the decorus-group of Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera).  Spixiana 14: 71-94.

Wülker, W., Sublette, J.E., Morath, E. and Martin, J. (1989b)  Chironomus columbiensis n.sp. in South America and Chironomus anonymus Williston in North America - closely related species.  Stud. Neotr. Fauna Env. 24: 121-136. (

Wülker, W.F., Sublette, J.E., Sublette, M.R. and Martin, J. (1971)  A review of the genus Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae). I. The staegeri group.  Stud. Nat. Sci. (Portales, N.M.) 1(1): 1-89.



Yamamoto, M. (1986)  Studies of the Japanese Chironomus inhabiting high acidic water (Diptera, Chironomidae). I.   Kontyu 54: 324-332.

Yamamoto, M. (1987)  Notes on the genus Chaetolabis Townes status nov., with a redescription of C. macani (Freeman) (Diptera, Chironomidae).  Esakia 25: 149-154.

Yamamoto, M. (1990)  Study of the Japanese Chironomus inhabiting high acidic water (Diptera,Chironomidae) II. Jpn. J. Ent. 58: 167-181.


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