Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, 1910

- as Chironomus (Prochironomus), on basis of adult female
Syn: Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga, 1936. As currently used, this name is a junior synonym of C. striatipennis (Pramual et al. 2016).  The location of type material is not recorded, so it is not certain whether the original specimens are identical to those currently recognized, since morphological and DNA data from Japan and Korea indicates the presence of a second species with similarly patterned wings.
However, considering the extensive use of the name for specimens of C. striatipennis, it is recommended that the name NOT BE USED, as its application to a different taxon would only cause further confusion.
    Chironomus pallidinubeculosus - incorrect synonymy by Hashimoto et al. 1981, as this is a distinct species with similarly patterned wings.

- Chironomus calipterus - misidentification by Saxena (1995) and Bugledich et al. 1999.

Kieffer's 1910 description and an English translation
(there are no figures)

Female.  Brun; tête et antennes roussâtres, nodosités des antennes noirâtres; mesonotum d'un gris blanchâtre, avec 4 bandes d'un brun roux, les deux médianes separées par une ligne et raccourcies en arrière, les deux lateráles raccourcies en avant; scutellum d'un gris blanchâtre; balanciers blancs; pattes blanchâtres, extrémité des 3 ou 4 premiers articles tarsaux et le dernier ou les deux derniers en entier d'un brun noir.  Antennes de 5 articles, dont le 2e est rétreci au milieu; 3-5 ellipsoidaux, plus longs que leur col, sauf le 5e, dont l'appendice terminal est de moitié plus long que la nodosité; verticilles 2-3 fois aussi longs que l'epaisseur des articles.  Ailes blanchâtres, avec des stries enfumées le long de la partie distale de la discoïdale, de la posticale et de ses deux rameaux, de l'anale et le long du bord du lobe anal; en outre, deux bandes longitudinales et étroites sont situées l'une distalement de l'autre, entre le cubitus et la discoïdale; nervures jaunâtres ; transversale, base du cubitus et de la partie distale de la discoïdale noires et bordées de noirâtre; extremité du radius également distante de l'extremité des deux rameaux de la posticale; cubitus a peine arqué, non dépasse par la costale, distant du bord, aussi rapproché de Ja pointe alaire que la discoïdale; transversale oblique, située un peu en avant de la bifurcation de la posticale.  Tibia antérieur égalant les trois quarts du fémur; métatarse double du tibia; 4e article tarsal plus de deux fois le 5e, celui-ci six fois aussi long que gros; aux pattes postérieurs, le 4e article est de moitié plus long que le 5e, qui est 3-4 fois aussi long que gros.  Abdomen presque deux fois aussi long que le reste du corps.  Taill 4.5 mm.

Female.  Brown; reddish head and antennae, nodules of antennae blackish; mesonotum a whitish gray, with four bands of reddish brown, the median two separated by a line and shortened at the back, the two sides shortened at the front; scutellum of a whitish gray, white balancers, legs whitish, extremities of 3 or 4 first tarsal segments and the whole of the last of the two of a black brown.  Antennae of 5 segments, including the second is narrowed in the middle; 3-5 ellipsoidal, longer than their collar, except the 5th, which is the terminal appendage which is half as long as the knot; whorls 2-3 times as long as the thickness of the segments. Wings whitish, with smoky streaks along the distal portion of the discoidal, the posticale and its two branches, the anal and along the edge of the anal lobe, in addition, two longitudinal and narrow strips are located distally from one another, between the ulna and discoidal; veins yellowish; transversal, base of the ulna and the distal part of the discoidal black and borders of blackish; distal extremity of the radius also distant from extremity of the two branches the posticale; cubitus barely arched not exceeding the costal, distant from the edge, as close to the wing tip as the discoidal, transversal oblique, located just in front of the bifurcation of the posticale.  Anterior tibia matching three-quarters of the femur; metatarsal twice the tibia; 4th tarsal segment more than twice the 5th, which is six times as long as wide; for the posterior legs, the 4th segment is half longer than the 5th, which is 3-4 times as long as wide.  Abdomen almost twice as long as rest of the body.  Length 4.5 mm.
i.e. for anterior legs LR = 2, F/T =1.3
In Kieffer's key the defining character is two transverse dark bands on the wings.

Translation of Kieffer, J.  Description de nouveaux Chironomides de l'Indian Museum de Calcutta.  Records of the Indian Museum 6 (3): 134 (1911F)
Chironomus striatipennis, Kieff.
(Pl. vi, fig. 12, part of the pincer)

♂ ♀. The male, which was unknown so far, has the antenna of 12 segments, whose 2nd is longer than wide, 3-11 very transverse, 12th three times longer than the 10 preceding combined; plume tawny.  Pronotum indented in the middle (♂ ♀).  Mesonotum, scutellum and base of metanotum ash grey and dull, the three bands of the mesonotum brownish black, the median divided by a longitudinal line and posterior border by a brown line.  Posterior legs of male have hairs 2-3 times as long as their thickness, except the tarsi.
Lamella of the piners with a prolonged beak; terminal articles suddenly thinned in its distal half, which is cylindrical, hairless and provided with three long bristles on the inner side (fig. 12).

Kumaon (Uttarakand):Bhim Tal, at an altitude of 1500 m.; 27-ix-1906 (N. Annandale); 7♂ and 1 ♀.  This species is neighbor to calipterus, Kieff.

The type in the Indian Museum was re-examined by Chaudhuri and Guha, but they did not redescribe it, while Chaudhuri et al. (1992) refer to a paratype male in the ZSI ( but its status is not clear as there is only a single female in the type material, so it cannot be a Paratype, and the collector (G. Brown) was not named in the later description of the male.

Diagnosis:  According to Chaudhuri et al. (1992):
Adult - scutellum with 14-18 setae; wing markings; tarsomeres I-III dark brown at apices; tergites II-V with brown median spot; hypopygium with bent anal point and curved superior volsella; and equal spheroidal seminal capsules.
Pupa - Frontal plate with triangular frontal tubercles; respiratory organ with a bunch of profusely branched filaments; tergite II with median shagreen and caudal row of 62-72 hooklets; tergite VIII with basal transverse patch of shagreen, caudolateral spur with 2 unequal points; G/F 1.05-1.08 in male and 0.69-0.82 in female.
Larva - AR 1.6-2.0, triangular labral lamella; 2 pairs of chaetulae basales; pecten epipharyngis a single plate with 16 teeth; premandible with subequal apical teeth and short premandibular brush; mandible with well developed pecten mandibularis; maxilla with 4 sensilla basiconica; mentum with short 4th and 6th lateral teeth; segment XI with 2 pairs of coiled ventral tubules; procercus with 8 anal setae.

Adult:  incorporating description of Chaudhuri et al. (1992):

Wing length = 1.98-2.84 mm.; width = 0.53-0.70) mm.  VR = 1.04-1.08.
LR = 1.49-1.82;
Face yellowish brown, antennae and palps brown.  AR about 2.47-2.97.  Frontal tubercles about 41 (35-49) µm long and 14 (10-20) µm wide.  Palpal proportions (micron) 50 : 44 : 160 : 164 : 240.  Clypeal setae - abt 16-22.
Thorax pale brown with brown stripes, lateral stripes darker along the medial edge, and ending in a darker spot; postnotum and sternopleuron brown.
Setae: acrostichals - abt 17 (13-23); dorsocentrals - 19 (16-26); prealar - 5 (3-5); scutellar - 2 - 4 in anterior row, 8-14 in posterior row.
Wings with dark spot over the crossvein and with obvious dark clouds and seams, particularly in cell R5.  2 setae on stem vein, abt 12-20 setae on squamal fringe.
Haltere pale.
Leg proportions (micron):

BR about 4.5 - 5.0, i.e. with a short beard. : Sensilla chaeticae: Mid 5-7; Hind 7-8

Wings with dark clouds as in C. kiiensis.  Some worker claim to be able to distinguish between the pattern of C. striatipennis and C. kiiensis, but it is more likely that there is just variation within a single species.

Illustration of the wing of C. striatipennis from Chaudhuri et al. 1992.

Abdominal tergites mostly dark, with a pale basal band on the anterior segments, paler in Japanese specimens.  About 7-10 setae near middle of tergite IX.

Male hypopygium (left) and superior appendage (right) of an Indian specimen of C. striatipennis

Superior volsella of the E-type (h) of Strenzke (1959). Setae of Inferior volsella simple.

Female (based on Sasa 1978 and Chaudhuri et al. 1992):
Wing length abt 2.8 mm.  VR about 1.06.  Cloudy patches as in male.
Antennal proportions (micron) 80, 147, 102, 105, 98, 170.
Frontal tubercles 43 µm long, 22 µm wide.
Palps (segs 2-5): 40, 130, 100, 230.
Leg lengths (microns) and proportions as follows:


Pupa:  Length about 5.4-6.8 mm (male) 4.8-5.8 (female), posterior margin of wing case about 1.1 mm.
Head: : Cephalic tubercles about 53-80 µm long and about 40-65 µm wide at the base, with a subterminal seta about 57 µm long.
Thorax:  Prealar tubercle present, not simple, but small, about 25 µm long and 6 µm wide.  Basal ring of respiratory horn with edge thicker at the anterior end, and pinched at the centre, about 126 µm long and 60 µm wide.  There are about 3 rough short spines immediately anterior to the basal ring, and a large, possibly muscle scar just posterior to it.
Abdomen:  About 62-80 recurved hooks on posterior margin of segment II, the hook row covering about 54% of the width of the segment.  Pedes spurii B on segment II, and pedes spurii A on segment IV, while those of segment V and VI are small and mainly identifiable by the spinules.
Caudolateral spur of segment VIII generally with 1 main spine (see below), but occasionally with 1 or 2 subsidiary ones.
Anal lobe with about 53 taeniae on each side, mostly in a single row.

Fourth instar larva: a small plumosus-type (length 7-8.2 mm).  Ventral tubules coiled and about equal length or anterior longer (ant 0.96-1.56 mm, post 0.96-1.48 mm).
Gula from pale to dark, which may extend over posterior 2/3; and frontoclypeus also from pale to dark.  Distance between antennal bases generally greater than the distance between the S4 setae.
Mentum (Fig. c) with C2 teeth of central tooth separated and sharp (type III), 4th lateral reduced, sometimes only slightly, or down to level of 4th lateral (type I-II).  Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with 12-18 teeth.
Ventromental plates (Fig. d) separated by 0.25-0.4 of the mentum width, about 19-46 striae reaching at least halfway to anterior margin; VMR about 0.28-0.36.
Premandibles with outer tooth slightly longer, but wear may make them equal or even leave the inner tooth slightly longer; inner tooth at least 1.5 and up to 2.5 times wider than the outer tooth.
Mandible (Fig. e) with third inner tooth partially or completely separated, and partially pigmented (i.e. type IIB or IIIB), with 12-20 furrows near base.
Antenna (Fig. b) with basal segment relatively long, 3.2-3.9 times longer than wide; Ring organ from about 0.32-0.53 up from base of segment; AR about 1.63-2.14; proportions (µm) 113 : 27 : 8 : 11 : 6.
Much of the variability in these larval characters comes from the different Indian samples.

Cytology:  Four polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi-cytocomplex combination AE, BF, CD, G.  Centromeres with some degree of heterochromatinization.
Nucleolus subterminal on arm G.  No nucleoli on long arms.  End of arm G bearing nucleolus, typically unpaired, with BR near other end.
Polymorphism in arms A, B, C, D, E, and F. Saxena also recorded a tandem fusion between arm A and B, and a small deletion near the distal end of arm B.
stpA1:    1 - 2c, 11 - 7, 4 - 6, 2d - 3, 12 - 19
stpA2: 1a-d, 10d - 12, 3 - 6a, 7 - 9, 4 - 6, 2i - 1e, 10a-c, 16 - 17, 13 - 15, 16 - 19
stpB1:    Puff virtually terminal with only the dark bands distal
stpB2:    simple inversion of B1, shares proximal breakpoint with B4, B5, B6.
stpB3:    Slightly longer inversion than B2, distal break at least 10 bands distal of B2 break.
stpB4:    Shares distal break with B2, proximal breakpoint shared with B5, B6 & B8.
stpB5:    Proximal breakpoint shared with B4, B6 & B8, distal with B3.
stpB6:    Proximal breakpoint shared with B4, B5 & B8, distal breakpoint shared with B7.
stpB7:    Proximal breakpoint closer to centromre, distal breakpoint shared with B6.
stpB8:    Proximal breakpoint shared with B4, B5 & B6, distal breakpoint just proximal to puff of group 7.
stpC1:    Characteristic groups 3-4 about 1/3 from centromere.
stpC2:    Simple inversion of almost the whole arm.    Shares proximal breakpoint with C3.
stpC3:    Shares proximal breakpoint with C2 and distal breakpoint with C4.
stpC4:    Shares distal breakpoint with C3 and proximal breakpoint with C5.   (India, Japan & Brazil).
stpC5:    Shares proximal breakpoint with C4.
stpD2:    Small simple proximal inversion.
stpD3:    Simple inversion of distal 2/3 of arm.  Shares distal breakpoint with D4.  Appears to occur in India, Japan and Brazil.
stpD4:    Large inversion of about 3/4 of the arm.    Shares distal breakpoint with D3
stpE1:    1a - 13g            i.e. Standard
stpE2:    1 - 2c, 8 - 2d, 9 - 13
stpF1:    1 - 2a, 15e - 11f, 2b - 15f-a, 11a-e, 16 - 23
stpF2:    1a, 21c - 16, 11e-a, 15a - 2b, 11f - 15e, 2a - 1b, 21d - 23     from stpF1 (from Saxena)
stpF3:    1 - 2a, 15e - 14, 18 - 16, 11e-a, 15a - 2b, 11f - 13, 19 - 23     from stpF1 (from Saxena)
stpF4:    1 - 2a, 15e - 14, 16f-a, 11f-a, 15a - 2b, 11f - 13, 16g - 23     from stpF1 (from Saxena)
stpG1:    Nucleolus subterminal.  A large BR may be developed in some localities, but not in others.

Polytene chromosomes of C. striatipennis

It needs to be noted that mtCOI sequence attributed to C. kiiensis exists from a number of areas, and falls into 3 groups.  The majority of sequences refer to C. striatipennis, but there are four sequences in GenBank that differ from them by about 9%.  These may be C. kiiensis, but note caution above.
The GenBank accession numbers are: JQ350720, AB740240, AB838642, AB838644.

Found: INDIA - Type localities - Bhim tal and Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh.
            Other localities: Burdwan.  Delhi - Lodi Gardens (28.53°N, 77.27°E); Yamuna River, Okhla (28.58°N, 77.22°E)
            Uttar Pradesh - Varanasi, Banaras (25.20°N, 83.10°E).  Jammu & Kashmir - Bishnah Wetlands((abt. 32.70°N, 75.00°E).).
            Japan - Seto, Wakayama Type locality of C. kiiensis; Otsu City, Honshu (35.00°N, 135.88°E). Many other localities as C. kiiensis,
            but uncertain which form they are.
            Malaysia - Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (5.33°N, 103.15°E).
            Singapore (1.28°N, 103.83°E).
            Brazil - Manaus, Amazonas (3.108°S, 59.975°W).
            U. S. A. - El Segundo, Los Angeles Co., California (Sublette & Mulla (2000) as C. strenzkei

Adult redescribed and immatures described by Chaudhuri, Das & Sublette (1992) for Indian material, while Sasa (1978) and Sasa & Hasegawa (1983) redescribed Japanese material as C. kiiensis.  The population in Brazil appears to be a recent introduction, probably from somewhere around Korea (Amora et al. 2015); while the Brazilian and Californian populations of C. strenzkei (Fittkau 1968; Sublette & Mulla 2000) are synonyms of C. striatipennis.  Nath & Lakhotia (1989) and Gupta & Kumar (1991) both describe the chromosomes, but it appears they reverse chromosomes I and II.  Chromosome arms A, E and F were described by Saxena (1995) as C. calipterus and she also provided some other unpublished sequences.

Molecular:  The mitochondrial COI barcode sequence exists for some Indian specimens, and groups with sequences from Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand attributed to C. kiiensis, but with an apparent cline of difference from west to east.  Sequence from Brasil shows close relationship to Japanese sequences.
GenBank accession numbers include: AB740241, AB838643, AB838645, AB838646, JF412086, JF412087, JF412088, JF412089, JQ350720.
BOLD numbers: COTW008, COTW009, COTW010, COTW011, COTW012
Many of these sequences are under the name Chironomus kiiensis

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Modified: 6 December 2018
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Copyright © 2013-2018, Jon Martin.