Compiled by Jon Martin
Genetics, Genomics and Development, School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia

This version is considerably updated from the previous version (v0319), but is still far from complete and the number of valid species from the region is still uncertain. It is also a compromise between the species of the genus Chironomus recorded and those for which cytological confirmation exists, found in India, South East Asia, China and Japan, i.e. the Oriental region as used here largely corresponds to that defined by Heiser and Schmitt (2013) on the basis of the distribution of Odonata.
Also included are two genera that have been considered as subgenera of Chironomus, with most known species originally described in that genus.  These genera are Einfeldia and Benthalia, with much confusion as to which genus the species actually belong.

I am very much indebted to numerous people who have provided me with material from these areas.

This listing is also available in pdf format (8.8 MB)(Created 25 September 2021).  This pdf contains information not yet on the web version.

Species listed according to the cytocomplex to which they belong (i.e. the combination of chromosome arms in the polytene karyotype.

thummi-cytocomplex species
C. cingulatus Meigen 1830
C. (Lobochironomus) dorsalis Meigen (as C. longipes Staeger)
C. javanus Kieffer 1924
C. novosibiricus Kiknadze et al. 1993
(?)C. pulcher Wiedermann 1830
C. salinarius Kieffer 1915
C. sinicus Kiknadze et al. 2005
C. suwai Golygina & Martin 2003

pseudothummi-cytocomplex species
C. acerbiphilus Tokunaga 1939
C. alpestris Goetghebuer 1934 (senior synonym of C. nippodorsalis Sasa 1979).
C. apicatus Johannsen 1932
C. circumdatus (Kieffer 1916)
C. costatus Johannsen 1932
C. crassiforceps Kieffer 1916
C. flaviplumus Tokunaga 1940
C. flaviplumus sensu Sasa (C. flaviplumus Type A)
C. flaviplumus Type B (India: as sp. PK2 & PK7)
C. flaviplumus Type C (widespread) see C. "orientalis"
C. incertipenis Chaudhuri & Das 1996 (formerly C. niger Chaudhuri et al. 1992)
C. incertipenis auctt. nec Chaudhuri & Das 1996 - see C. flaviplumus Type B
C. kiiensis Tokunaga 1936, see C. striatipennis
C. nippodorsalis Sasa, 1979 (see C. alpestris Goetghebuer)
C. ramosus Chaudhuri et al. 1992
C. nr. samoensis (India)
C. samoensis Edwards 1928. - not an Oriental species, but included here to clarify the differences from supposed Oriental material, e.g. C. flaviplumus Tokunaga (above), C. nr. flaviplumus, and C. samoensis sensu Chaudhuri et al (see C. indiaensis below).
C. "samoensis", Japan
C. striatipennis Kieffer 1910
C. striatipennis Type 2
C. yoshimatsui Martin & Sublette 1972
C sp. DSC1
C. sp. PK4
C. sp. PK5
C. sp. PK6
C. species studied by Rathore and Swarap
C. sp. SS

camptochironomus-cytocomplex or subgenus
C. biwaprimus Sasa & Kawai 1987
C. mongolabeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolbeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1997

Cytology Unknown
C. acutus Das . 2015 (junior synonym of C. acutus Goetghebuer 1928.  New name required)
C. alternus Das . 2015
C. atrosignatus Kieffer 1911
C. bicoloris Tokunaga 1964
C. bipunctus Johannsen 1932
C. brevistylus Guha et al. 1985
C. claggi Tokunaga 1964
C. clavipenis Das . 2015
C. confectus Das . 2015
C. culturus Das . 2015
C. flavitibia Johannsen 1932
C. formosae Kieffer 1912
C. fortibracchius Das . 2015
C. fortistylus Chaudhuri et al. 1992
C. fujisecondus Sasa 1985
C. fujitertius Sasa 1985
C. fusciceps Yamamoto 1992
C. hemicyclius Das . 2015
C. incertus Kieffer 1924.  Requires new name.
C. indiaensis Martin, 2011 (formerly C. samoensis sensu Chattopadhyay et al., 1991)
C. lurilatus Das . 2015
C. kanazawai Yamamoto, 1996
C. mongolcedeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongoldeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolefeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolgeheus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolheus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. nipponensis Tokunaga, 1940
C. nudipes Kieffer 1911
C. okinawanus Hasegawa & Sasa 1987
C. palpalis Johansen 1932
C. quadratus Johannsen 1932
C. setonis Tokunaga 1936
C. sp. "shimantoabeus" Sasa, et al. 1998 (an intersex of the 'nippodorsalis-group')
C. simantobeceus Sasa et al. 1998
C. sollicitus Hirvenoja 1962
C. sulfurosus Yamamoto 1990
C. tokarabeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1995
C. trinigrivittatus Tokunaga 1940
C. uttarpradeshensis Singh & Kulshretha 1976

Subgenus Chaetolabis
The cytology of Oriental Chaetolabis species is not known:
C. (?Chaetolabis) echizensis Sasa 1994
C. (Chaetolabis) macani (Freeman 1948)

E. ocellata Hashimoto 1985 - probable synonym of C. (Lobochironomus) dorsalis (see above)
E. pagana Meigen 1838 - probably requires a new name.

Currently only one species is accepted as occurring in this region (but see details of that species)
B. carbonaria Meigen 1804

There is also a long list of species described as Chironomus or Tendipes from the Oriental region that were classed as "Unplaced Chironomini" or "Nomina Dubia" by Sublette and Sublette (1973).

Species Descriptions

In general, the morphological terminology used in this document follows Sæther (1980), Webb & Scholl (1985) and Vallenduuk & Moller Pillot (1997).

In the adult descriptions reference is made to the types of superior volsella shape as recognized by Strenzke (1959).  This is a helpful initial classification, but experience has shown that the types are not discrete, but are part of a continuum.  The three categories as described by Strenzke are:
S-type: The SVo is shoe shaped, i.e. it is drawn out distal-medially into a broad, rounded lobe (Fig. a-c, below) (Strenzke's figure suggests the most distal point will be at the toe of the shoe).
D-type: The SVo is ribbon-like: distally it may have a weakly thickened shoulder (Fig. d, below) (most distal point is not at the internal margin), or bent in a shallow sickle-shape (Fig. e-f, below).
E-type: The SVo has the form of an elephant's tusk; distally it is sharply graded to a point, or with an expanded knob (Fig. g-i, below) (line from base to most distal point goes outside the limits of the SVo).

In the following larval descriptions, reference is made to the larval type, based on the modifications proposed by Proulx et al (2013).  The categories are:
Lacking posterolateral (PLT) and ventral tubules (VT):
salinarius - posterior prolegs of usual dimensions, about 2 times longer than wide
A new variant of this type has been defined: yama, where posterior prolegs long and narrow, as in Tanypodines, about 4 times longer than wide, while the anal tubules are arranged in a star-shape (Martin & Chingambam (2016).

Lacking PLT:
halophilus - anterior VT very short or absent, posterior VT short.
bathophilus - moderate to long, essentially straight VT.
fluviatilis - VT slightly curved and coming to a point at ends (often hard to distinguish from bathophilus-type, particularly in some fixed material).
thummi - long, anterior VT with 'elbows', posterior VT coiled.

Possessing PLT:
reductus - lacking ventral tubules.
semireductus - short, straight or slightly curved VT.
melanotus - moderate to long, essentially straight VT.
plumosus - long, anterior VT with 'elbows', posterior VT coiled.

"short" is generally less than the width of segment 11.

As well the mentum and mandible types originally devised Webb & Scholl (1985), Vallenduuk & Moller Pillot (1997) and Proulx et al. (2013).  These classifications were made for relatively small numbers of species, but with much larger numbers of species, such as in the North American fauna, they do not cover all the variability seen in these characters and so further modification has been necessary.  As well a ventromental character is included.

The mentum type is defined only by the degree of development of the 4th lateral teeth:
Type I - height in same line as the rest of the lateral teeth;
Type II - 4th laterals reduced, height about equal to that of the 5th laterals;
Type III - 4th laterals further reduced, height less than that of the 5th laterals.

The mentum may be further classified by the characters of the central trifid tooth:

Type IA - c2 teeth only partially separate from c1, i.e. as shoulders on c1 (figure a).
Type IB - c2 teeth slightly more separated (figure b).
Type IIA - c1 broad, c2 teeth distinctly separated (figure c).
Type IIB - c1 very broad, c2 less separated (figure d).
Type III - c1 tooth relatively narrow and much higher than the separated c2 teeth (figs e and f).
Type IV - c2 teeth well separated, not much lower than the relatively narrow c1 tooth (figs g and h).

The mandible type is defined by the degree of darkening and separation of the 3rd inner tooth:
It seems better to consider the two characters separately.
Type I - tooth fused
Type II - tooth partially free
Type III - tooth completely separated
Type A - tooth pale
Type B - some degree of pigmentation
Type C - as dark as other inner teeth

This figure shows IA; IIB; IIIC respectively

Ventromental plate ratio (VMR) - ratio of the width of the marginal region of ventromentum (usually seen as a granular band under light microscopy) (a in figure below) to the distance from the anterior margin to the base of the striae (b in figure below).

Pecten epipharyngis -
Proulx et al. (2013) recognised 4 types of PE in North American species.  These are useful if the teeth are not worn down, as they often are in older larvae.

Type A - fine sharp rather uniform teeth.

Type B - teeth broader but still sharp.  Sometimes with one or two fine smaller teeth interspersed.

Type C - rounded and rather uniform.  Worn type B teeth may be mistaken for this type.

Type D - rounded teeth with smaller teeth interspersed (generally found in the subgenera Lobochironomus or Chaetolabis).

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