MORPHOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY OF         ORIENTAL CHIRONOMUS SPECIES

Compiled by Jon Martin
Genetics, Genomics and Development, School of Biosciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia

This version is considerably updated from the previous version (v0522), but is still far from complete and the number of valid species from the region is still uncertain. It is also a compromise between the species of the genus Chironomus recorded and those for which cytological confirmation exists, found in India, South East Asia, China and Japan, i.e. the Oriental region as used here largely corresponds to that defined by Heiser and Schmitt (2013) on the basis of the distribution of Odonata.
Also included are two genera that have been considered as subgenera of Chironomus, with most known species originally described in that genus.  These genera are Einfeldia and Benthalia, with much confusion as to which genus the species actually belong.

I am very much indebted to numerous people who have provided me with material from these areas.

This listing is also available in pdf format (9.8 MB)(Created 20 September 2022).  This pdf contains information not yet on the web version.


Species listed according to the cytocomplex to which they belong (i.e. the combination of chromosome arms in the polytene karyotype.

thummi-cytocomplex species
C. (Lobochironomus) dorsalis Meigen (as C. longipes Staeger)
C. javanus Kieffer 1924
C. novosibiricus Kiknadze et al. 1993
(?)C. pulcher Wiedermann 1830
C. riparius Meigen 1804
C. salinarius Kieffer 1915(?)
C. sinicus Kiknadze et al. 2005
C. stigmaterus (not Say) - misidentification by Chavan et al. 2013
C. suwai Golygina & Martin 2003

pseudothummi-cytocomplex species
C. acerbiphilus Tokunaga 1939
C. alpestris Goetghebuer 1934
C. apicatus Johannsen 1932
C. circumdatus (Kieffer 1916)
C. costatus Johannsen 1932
C. crassiforceps Kieffer 1916
C. flaviplumus Tokunaga 1940
C. flaviplumus sensu Sasa (C. flaviplumus Type A)
C. flaviplumus Type B (India: as sp. PK2 & PK7)
C. flaviplumus Type C (widespread) see C. "orientalis"
C. nr. flaviplumus from India
C. fusciceps Yamamoto 1990
C. incertipenis Chaudhuri & Das 1996 (formerly C. niger Chaudhuri et al. 1992)
C. incertipenis auctt. nec Chaudhuri & Das 1996 - see C. flaviplumus Type B
C. kiiensis Tokunaga 1936, Junior synonym of C. striatipennis
C. nippodorsalis Sasa, 1979
C. "orientalis" - manuscript name.
C. ramosus Chaudhuri et al. 1992
C. nr. samoensis (India)
C. samoensis Edwards 1928. - not an Oriental species, but included here to clarify the differences from supposed Oriental material, e.g. C. flaviplumus Tokunaga (above), C. nr. flaviplumus, and C. samoensis sensu Chaudhuri et al (see C. indiaensis below).
C. "samoensis", Japan
C. striatipennis Kieffer 1910
C. striatipennis Type 2
C. sulfurosus Yamamoto 1990
C. yoshimatsui Martin & Sublette 1972
C sp. DSC1
C. sp. PK5 (syn. of C. alpestris)
C. sp. PK6 (probable member of the C. flaviplumus-complex)
C. sp. R&S (possibly conspecific with C. circumdatus)
C. sp. SS of Saxena 1995

camptochironomus-cytocomplex
C. biwaprimus Sasa & Kawai 1987
C. mongolabeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolbeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1997

Cytology Unknown
C. acutus Das . 2015 (junior synonym of C. acutus Goetghebuer 1928.  New name required)
C. alternus Das . 2015
C. atrosignatus Kieffer 1911
C. bharati Singh & Kulshrestha 1976
C. bicoloris Tokunaga 1964
C. (Lobochironomus) bifidus Pal & Hazra 2017 – descriptions indicate this is not Chironomus.
C. bipunctus Johannsen 1932
C. brevistylus Guha et al. 1985
C. claggi Tokunaga 1964
C. clavipenis Das . 2015
C. confectus Das . 2015
C. culturus Das . 2015
C. flavitibia Johannsen 1932
C. formosae Kieffer 1912
C. fortibracchius Das . 2015
C. fortistylus Chaudhuri et al. 1992
C. fujisecondus Sasa 1985
C. fujitertius Sasa 1985
C. hemicyclius Das . 2015
C. incertus Kieffer 1924.  Requires new name.
C. indiaensis Martin, 2011 (formerly C. samoensis sensu Chattopadhyay et al., 1991)
C. lurilatus Das . 2015
C. kanazawai Yamamoto, 1996
C. mongolcedeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongoldeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolefeus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolgeheus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. mongolheus Sasa & Suzuki 1997
C. nipponensis Tokunaga, 1940
C. nudipes Kieffer 1911
C. okinawanus Hasegawa & Sasa 1987
C. palpalis Johansen 1932
C. quadratus Johannsen 1932
C. securis Konar 2018 - probably Kiefferulus C. setonis Tokunaga 1936
C. sp. "shimantoabeus" Sasa, et al. 1998 (an intersex of the 'nippodorsalis-group')
C. simantobeceus Sasa et al. 1998
C. sollicitus Hirvenoja 1962
C. tokarabeceus Sasa & Suzuki 1995
C. trinigrivittatus Tokunaga 1940
C. uncinus Konar 2018 - unlikely to be Chironomus
C. uttarpradeshensis Singh & Kulshretha 1976

Subgenus Chaetolabis
The cytology of Oriental Chaetolabis species is not known:
C. (?Chaetolabis) echizensis Sasa 1994
C. (Chaetolabis) macani (Freeman 1948)

Einfeldia
E. ocellata Hashimoto 1985 - now C. (Lobochironomus)
E. pagana Meigen 1838 - probably requires a new name.
E. sasai Yamamoto & Yamamoto 2018

Benthalia
Currently only two species are accepted as occurring in this region:
B. carbonaria Meigen (1804) but this should be considered to be just a group name.
B. dissidens (Walker 1856) – but this may be a synonym of B. carbonaria (or a member of the carbonaria-group?)
B. dystenus (Kieffer 1916) (description insufficient to identify the species)
Four species can be recognised from data in the BOLD database:
B. species 1.
B. species 2.
B. species 3.
B. species 4.

There is also a long list of species described as Chironomus or Tendipes from the Oriental region that were classed as "Unplaced Chironomini" or "Nomina Dubia" by Sublette and Sublette (1973).



Species Descriptions

In general, the morphological terminology used in this document follows Sæther (1980), Webb & Scholl (1985) and Vallenduuk & Moller Pillot (1997).

In the adult descriptions reference is made to the types of superior volsella shape as recognized by Strenzke (1959).  This is a helpful initial classification, but experience has shown that the types are not discrete, but are part of a continuum.  The three categories as described by Strenzke are:
S-type: The SVo is shoe shaped, i.e. it is drawn out distal-medially into a broad, rounded lobe (Fig. a-c, below) (Strenzke's figure suggests the most distal point will be at the toe of the shoe).
D-type: The SVo is ribbon-like: distally it may have a weakly thickened shoulder (Fig. d, below) (most distal point is not at the internal margin), or bent in a shallow sickle-shape (Fig. e-f, below).
E-type: The SVo has the form of an elephant's tusk; distally it is sharply graded to a point, or with an expanded knob (Fig. g-i, below) (line from base to most distal point goes outside the limits of the SVo).

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Modified: 20 September 2022
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Maintainer: Jon Martin j.martin@unimelb.edu.au