C. flaviplumus Tokunaga 1940

Syn: Einfeldia okisiroia Sasa 1993
Was placed as a synonym of Chironomus samoensis Edwards by Hashimoto (1977), but this synonymy was considered doubtful by Sasa (1978).

According to Sasa (1978), Tokunaga's description was very brief and un-illustrated.  Notes that tergal side of abdominal segments II to IV each with a small, oval, dark central spot; antennal ratio is about 3.5 and larger than 2.9 of C. dorsalis (Sasa assumes this is C. yoshimatsu, but could as easily be C. nipponensis).

The major reason for doubting the synonymy of C. flaviplumus with C. samoensis is the higher AR (abt 3.5 - 4) (Sasa 1978), and the difference in the anterior fore leg ratios of the female.  There is also a difference in the distribution of C. flaviplumus and the Japanese C. samoensis, in that C. flaviplumus has a more northerly, cooler, distribution.
However the "C. samoensis" used as a laboratory organism and from which the cytology of Japanese specimens is obtained (see below) is probably one of the C. flaviplumus types.

Found: JAPAN - Saga, Kyoto (Type locality)

Four species have been found described under this name based on the available BARCODE sequences, two in Japan, one in China and the Korean material of Ree & Kim (1981), which is actually C. yoshimatsui.
Since there has been no further study of material from the type locality, it is not clear which of these species is the true C. flaviplumus.
Specimens found in Northern Australia are probably a closely related species. The three types of C. flaviplumus are here referred to as Type A, type B, and type C.

Molecular Sequence:
COI: The barcode sequences of these species are in Genbank from Japan (2 species) and China (another species, accession numbers KP902730 - 731), and there are also sequences in the Japanese Chironomid DNA Barcode database.  The Korean samples in GenBank (accession numbers JF412075 - 077), as noted above, are C. yoshimatsui.

If correctly identified, this species can be bred in the laboratory, as Japanese specimens have been maintained in a laboratory culture (Kuhn et al. 1987).

Chironomus flaviplumus type A.

This variant was described by Sasa (1978).

One possibility for this species is in BOLD Bin: BOLD:ACQ8383.

The possibility of more than one species is raised by a later paper by Sasa and Hasegawa (1983) which gives a much broader range of values (including Ta5/Ti values of only 0.25) which could suggest that they had material of more than one species.

For further details see Chironomus flaviplumus Type A.

Chironomus flaviplumus Type B

This type was identified as C. flaviplumus by H. Yamamoto.  BLAST comparisons of available sequences in GenBank or the BOLD Database reveals that the species is widely distributed from India, Japan, Pakistan (as C. incertipenis), and Thailand (as Chironomus sp.).

The species is in BOLD Bin: BOLD:AAW3997.

There is no current name - see under C. sp. PK2

Chironomus flaviplumus Type C

This species is in BOLD Bin: BOLD:AAV5954.

This type was identified as C. flaviplumus from the Yangtze River basin in China by Chen and Zhang (GenBank 2015 - unpubl.), for which only the DNA BARCODE sequence is available.  Limited information on the larva was available from Thailand (Pramual et al. 2016).

Further material, especially from Australia is enabling this species to be described as a new species under the name C. "orientalis".

[ Return to Index | Go to C. nr. samoensis (India) | Go to C.flaviplumus Type B]


Modified: 30 March 2020
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