C. circumdatus Kieffer 1916.

Synonym:  C. basitibialis Tokunaga 1936
            C. bharati Singh & Kulshretha 1976 (doubtful synonymy see description of C. bharati)
            C. costatus sensu Karunakaran 1969 (mtCOI - Wong, unpubl.; cytology - Martin unpubl.)
            C. plumatisetigerus Tokunaga, 1945 (Martin and Saxena 2009)
            C. setonis Tokunaga 1936 (Yamamoto 2013)
Probable Syn: C. costatus Johannsen 1932 (see C. costatus)

In BOLD Bin: BOLD:AAG5483

Adult
    Male:


Male terminalia of C. circumdatus.
Anal point relatively narrow, superior volsella curved at the tip.

AR about 3.5.
Frontal tubercles about 25-43 micron long, 10-17 micron wide.  Palpal proportions (micron) 56 : 54 : 213 : 218 : 334.  Clypeal setae - 17-34.
Thorax greenish, scutal stripes conspicuous with dark brown margins; scutellum pale yellow, postnotum dark brown.
Thoracic setae:  acrostichals - 12-18;  dorsocentrals - 18-27;  prealar - 5-6;  scutellar - 8-14 in anterior row, 13-26 in posterior row (higher numbers have an intermediate row of 11-12 setae).

Wing length: 2.80 mm; wing width 0.67 mm;  VR about 1.02-1.05.  Wings without darkening of the crossvein.  25-27 setae on anal fringe.
Legs pale, with darkening at distal ends, also on distal half of Ti4 and all of Ta5.
Leg lengths (microns) and proportions as follows:

 
Fe
Ti
Ta1
Ta2
Ta3
PI
1145
1060
1610
835
745
PII
1230
1110
705
395
295
PIII
1350
1350
1000
560
475
 
Ta4
Ta5
LR
F/T
BR
PI
645
325
1.42-1.67
1.04-1.12
1.64-1.9
PII
165
135
0.62-0.66
1.05-1.13
 
PIII
250
170
0.72-0.81
0.97-1.02
 

Abdominal segments pale, but with increasing central dark oval patch, so that tergites V-VIII are vrtually all dark.
Anal point narrow; 1-16 setae on tergite IX.  Superior volsella of the D-type, between d and e of Strenzke (1959), but tip may be more bent.  Sasa classes Japanese material as E-type, although one illustration looks more like a D-type.  Basal setae on inferior volsella ramose.

Female (based on Sasa 1978):
Wing length 2.8 mm.
Antennal proportions (micron): 80 : 190 : 120 : 120 : 130 : 280.
Frontal tubercle short and stout, 24 micron long and 17 micron wide.
Palpal proportions (segs. 2-5) (µm): 60 : 240 : 250: 540.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Adult female of C. circumdatus from Australia. (from BOLD)

Leg lengths (microns) and proportions as follows:
 
Fe
Ti
Ta1
Ta2
Ta3
PI
1440
1150
2050
1000
930
PII
1630
1340
810
410
290
PIII
1490
1490
11500
560
460
 
Ta4
Ta5
LR
F/T
Ta4/Ti
PI
880
410
1.79
1.25
0.43
PII
180
150
0.60
1.22
0.13
PIII
270
180
0.77
1.00
0.18

Abdominal tergites almost entirely dark brown, with narrow apical pale bands on tergites I to VII.



Pupa:
Brown.
Exuviae pale brown.
Body about 6.6 - 7.7 mm (male) and 6.5 - 7.6 mm (female).
Frontal tubercles (Fig. a) about 70 - 100 µm, with a subapical seta (40-80 µm).
Thorax rugose, with 2 pairs of precorneal setae.
Abdominal tergite II with median shagreen and about 52-68 hooklets, tergites
III-V entirely with shagreen, tergite VI with T-shaped shagreen, tergites VII-VIII
with 2 broad patches of shagreen.
Caudolateral spur (Figs. b & c) with about 2-4 spines.

Larva:
a medium plumosus-type (length 10.6-13.7 mm; females 11.2-12.5 mm).
Posterior pair of ventral tubules generally longer than anterior pair (ant. 1.36-2.48 mm; post. 1.52-2.76 mm), and coiled.  Lateral tubules well developed (about 2209-480 µm).  Anal tubules vary in different areas, from less than 2x longer than wide in some parts of India, to 3-4x longer in other areas; length 290-440 µm, width 80-165 µm.
Gular region darkened on posterior third to half, frontoclypeus variable from very slightly darkened to dark.
Mentum (Fig. c.) with fourth laterals reduced to about the level of the 5th laterals (type II), 6th laterals pointed outwards; c2 teeth of the central tooth mentum well separated (type III).
Clypeal aperture about 63 µm long and 3.9 times longer than wide).
Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 12-15 teeth, often more worn than pictured.
Premandible with inner tooth shorter (wear?) to about equal, and about 2-2.5 times the width of the outer.
Antenna (Fig. b) with basal segment 2.8-3.5 times as long as wide; A2/A1 about 0.23-0.31; A4/A3 about 2.3-2.6; AR about 2-2.3; relative segment lengths (micron) 114 : 26 : 6 : 11 : 7.
Distance between antennal bases greater than that between the S4 setae, which are separated by about 0.8 of the frontoclypeal width.
Mandible (Fig. e) with third inner tooth mostly slightly darkened and only partly separated (type IA-IIB), about 11-14 furrows on outer surface near the base; 8-10 taeniae in PMa; Mdt-Mat/Mand len. abt 0.11-0.12.
Anal tubules may vary in size in different areas, from about twice as long as wide (Allahabad) to almost three times as long as wide (Jammu), length 290 - 440 µm, width 165 µm.

Cytology:  Four polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi-cytocomplex combination BF, CD, AE, G. Nucleoli in arm B and C, with a small one also present subterminal in arm G (which is not always present/active).  Arm G closely paired with generally 3 obvious BRs from near the nucleolus to the opposite end, depending upon the sequence.
Polymorphism in arms A, B, C, D and G, although Pamual et al. report pericentric inversions involving the AE and BF chromosomes.  The largest number of inversions is in arm B.
cirA1:    1 - 3, 12 - 4, 13 - 19                                                                                                          as pseudothummi (widespread)
cirA2:    1 - 2c, 10 - 12, 3 - 2d, 9 - 4, 13 - 19                                                                                             as holomelas (widespread)
cirA3:    approx. 1 - 2d, 11 - 12, 3 - 2e, 10 - 4, 13 - 19                                                              (Thailand)
cirA-E(called A4):  A1-3, 12-5, E11-13, A6-4, 13-19, E 10i-c, 3f, 3a-e, 10ba-4, 2-1                    (India & Thailand)
cirB1:    Puff near nucleolus, with dark bands on distal side (gps. 8 - 7)                                            (widespread)
cirB2:    Puff just beyond middle of arm with dark bands proximal (gps 7 - 8):                                                (widespread)
cirB3:    abt same size as B2, but moved a few bands proximal, ending at nucleolus                          (India)
cirB4:    small inversion distal of the distal break of B2                                                                            (Thailand)
cirB5:    Similar to B2, but about 2-3 bands shorter at each end                                                                (Thailand)
cirB6:    inversion of distal third of arm                                                                                      (Thailand)
cirB7:    small subterminal inversion                                                                                                            (Thailand)
cirB8:    Small inversion of the region of the nucleolus                                                                (northern India)
cirB-F (called F2): involves the characteristic bands (groups 24-26) of arm B, to about F19                                        (Thailand)
cirC1:    Median nucleolus                                                                                                                                    (widespread)
cirC2:    Inversion of about a third of the arm distal to the nucleolus                                                              (widespread)
cirD1:    differs from oppD1 by at least one inversion                                                                                                          (widespread)
cirD2:    inversion of approximately the middle third of the arm                                                                                    (widespread)
cirD3:    noted by Kumar & Gupta, but seems to be in same region as cirD2                                                                                (India)
cirE1:    1 - 2 4 - 10ab 3e-a, 3f, 10c - 13                                                                                                                        from aprilinus by Inv4-3a
cirF1:    1 - 2a, 10d - 2c, 15c - 11a, 2b, 15d - 23                                                                                                                      as oppositus F3
cirG1:    Nucleolus near one end, three BRs towards the other end (most distal not always visible)                                        (widespread)
cirG2:    Inversion of over two thirds of the arm, from proximal of the nucleolus to between the two larger BRs                (widespread)
cirG3:    small inversion of the region of the BRs                                                                                                 (India)

Found:  India to Thailand, to New Guinea, Australia and the Pacific area.
            Type locality: Tainan (abt 23.0°N, 120.0°E), Yentempo, (formerly Takao Prefecture), FORMOSA (TAIWAN)..
            India - Yamuna River near Interstate Bus Terminals, East Delhi; Okhla, South East Delhi; University of Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu
            (32.73°N, 74.87°E), Bishnah wetland 32.70°N, 75.00°E), Suchetgarh, Jammu & Kashmir; Madurai, Tamil Nadu (9.91°N, 78.00°E);
            Varanasi, Banaras, Uttar Pradesh (25.20°N, 83.03°E)
            Indonesia - Kampung Damai, Balikpapan (1.25°S, 116.82°E), Kalimantan.
            Malaysia - Langat River, Selangor.
            Singapore - Sungei Api Api.
            Thailand: - Ban Bangkanark, Chachoengsao Province (Hashimoto et al. 1981); Bangkok area; Ban Don Chi, Amphoe Phibun
            Mangsahan, Ubol Ratchathani Province (Hashimoto et al. 1981); Ban Haet, Ban Phai, Borabue, Changhan, Chiang Khwan, Chiang yuen,
            Kamalasai, Kantharavichai, Kham Ta Kla, Meuang Kalasin, Meuang Khon Kean, Meuang Nakhon Phanom, Meuang Roi Et,
           Na Kae, Phang Khon, Pra Yuen, Renu Nakhon, Rong kham, Sawang Daen Din, Si Somdet, That Phanom, Yang Talat, Wanon Niwat
            (mostly from Pramual et al. 2008).

The morphology was redescribed by Sasa (1978) and Chaudhuri et al. (1992).
Chromosomes described by Kumar & Gupta (1990) and Pramual et al. (2008) as C. circumdatus, by Kuvangkadilok (1985) from Thailand, and for arms A, E and F (with some errors) by Saxena (1995) as C. plumatisetigerus.
This species can be bred in the laboratory (Kuvangkadilok 1994)

DNA Sequence
mtCOI: sequence is in GenBank for Malaysia (acc.no. JQ287751), Thailand (acc.nos. KT212956-977, JQ287747-51), Singapore (acc.no. KJ530968).

[ Return to Index| Go to References ]


Modified: 30 July 2021
Access: Unrestricted
Copyright © 2009-2021, Jon Martin.