C. australis Macquart, 1847

Synonyms:
C. applicatus Walker 1856 (see transcription of original description)
C. imitans Walker 1856 (see transcription of original description)
Orthocladius applicatus Kieffer 1906, 1917

In BOLD Bin: BOLD:ACQ5133

A large species with the anterior tarsi of the male strongly bearded.

                                                    Description of C. australis from Skuse 1889.                                            Male terminalia of the type specimen of C. australis
                                                                                                                                                                                    This specimen is in the British Museum of Natural
                                                                                                                                                                                    History.

The type male was measured by Dr. P. Freeman of the British Museum of Natural History and later examined by me (see figure of hypopygium above).

TIX with 9 setae in a single relatively clear area.  Anal point sharply downturned, probably narrowed at base, and reaching about to middle of the gonostyle which is only moderately swollen and narrowing gently over posterior half.  Superior Volsella closest to D(e) type of Strenzke (1959).  Inferior Volsella reaching about to end of anal point or 1/3 along the gonostyle; some setae appeared bifid but this has not been confirmed on other specimens.

Other males:
Thorax brownish, vittae fuscous, scutellum brownish.  Abdominal segments largely blackish, pale posterior margin on anterior segments.  Legs brownish.  AR 3.93 (3.63-4.65).  LR 1.28 (1.23-1.42)(generally higher in Lake Eucumbene specimens).
Wing length 4.5-6.6 mm, width 1.05-1.21 mm.  VR 0.91-1.04.  About 16-23 setae in squamal fringe; 3-4 Scf on brachiolum.  Crossvein slightly darkened.
Cephalic tubercles 40-53 µm, about three times longer than wide, setae generally lost.  Palpal proportions (µm): 79 : 76 : 248 : 301 : 422; P5/P4 1.44 (1.36-1.63); P5/P3 1.70 (1.33-2.05).  Clypeus 0.7-1.2 times the antennal diameter, about 33 (24-47) clypeal setae.
Thoracic setae: Acrostichals not clear - at least 9-16; Dorsolaterals 20.0 (13-27); Prealars 5.86 (5-9); Supraalars 1-2; Scutellars in two to three rows, anterior row(s) 12.6 (9-16), posterior row 18.4 (15-25) (total 25-41).
Leg lengths (microns) and proportions as follows:

 
Fe
Ti
Ta1
Ta2
Ta3
Ta4
Ta5
LR
F/T
BR
PI
1794
1773
2230
1145
973
911
425
1.20-1.41
0.95-1.08
3.6-7.5
PII
1824
1777
1045
598
457
321
236
0.56-0.65
0.98-1.07
-
PIII
2237
2482
1564
861
689
457
265
0.61-0.70
0.91-1.01
-

Abdomen black with a pale posterior margin on the anterior segments.  7.1 (3-16) setae in single patch on tergite IX.
Anal point relatively narrow and darkened.  Gonostylus may be only moderately swollen and narrowing gently over post half but may also narrow fairly sharply over posterior third to quarter.  Superior volsella of D(e)-type of Strenzke (1959).  Inferior Volsella reaching about to end of anal point and about 1/3 of the gonostylus length, and with simple setae.

Female:
Coloration essentially as in male, although generally darker, especially on the abdomen.
Wing length about 6.29 (4.72-7.36 mm; width about 1.64 (1.24-2.00) mm; VR 0.95 (0.91-0.99).  About 28.8 (12-49) setae in squamal fringe (low values from Victorian specimens), in up to three rows, and 5.9 (4-8) SCf on brachiolum.  LR about 1.37, higher in N.S.W. populations.
Relative lengths of antennal segments (micron)(% of neck in brackets): 229 (29) : 132 (44) : 146 (44) : 146 (49) : 306; AR 0.46 (0.41-0.53); A5/A1 1.35 (1.21-1.51).  Cephalic tubules present but variable, 19-58 µm long, larger in Victorian populations, and about 1.3-3.8 times longer than width at base, seta usually lost.  Clypeus about 1.7-2.2 times the diameter of the antennal pedicel; about 41.8 (30-54) clypeal setae.  Palpal proportions (micron): 89 : 80 : 251 : 286 : 475; P5/P4 1.61 (1.48-2.01), P5/P3 1.83 (1.16-2.74).
Thoracic setae: Acrostichals up to about 18; Humerals - 7 (4-10) mostly linear but small groups of 2-3; Dorsocentrals 23 (17-27), DC+Hum - 30.6 (23-45); prealar 6.7 (5-8); supraalar usually 1; Scutellar in multiple rows, 16-30 in anterior rows, 19-22 in posterior row (total 38.6 (31-50).
Legs greenish, with tips and bases of femora and tibiae and tips of tarsi brown
Leg lengths and proportions (micron):

 
Fe
Ti
Ta1
Ta2
Ta3
Ta4
Ta5
LR
F/T
Ta4/Ta3
PI
2078
2000
2666
1288
1104
1079
514
1.15-1.59
0.98-1.13
0.94-1.00
PII
2224
2110
1251
565
424
308
263
0.55-0.61
0.99-1.10
-
PIII
2669
2834
1800
856
683
438
290
0.60-0.68
0.91-0.98
-

BR about 0.4-2.7.  CS: Mid Ta1 59-81; Hind Ta1 70-101
MidTi/AntTi - 1.03-1.08

Abdomen brown with paler band on hind border of each segment.  Segment GcIX small, oval, with about 3-5 setae, segment X relatively narrow - len/wdth about 3.3 (3.0-4.2), with about 25.5 (17-34 setae).  Cercus generally rounded, dorsal margin shorter, ventral with obvious basal bulge.

Morphologically very similar to C. occidentalis and C. duplex, but is distributed allopatrically to the former and differs from the latter by the generally shorter length of the mid and hind femur and tibia.  As well C. australis tends to have less setae, particularly on the clypeus (35.1 cf. 39.4), GcIX (3-5 cf. 4-16) and segment X (17-32 cf. 28-42), while the ratio of fore Ta4/Ti in C. australis (0.50-0.56) appears to be greater than in both C. duplex (0.38-0.53) and C. occidentalis (0.39-0.42).

Molecular:
MtCOI: GenBank Accession numbers KC750267-KC750279
MtcytB: GenBank Accession numbers KC750719-KC750720, KC750590.
CTRT1-like SINE region: GenBank Accession numbers AF356451-AF356458.

Found: Australian Capital Territory: Belconnen (35.23°S, 149.05°E).
            New South Wales: Adaminaby (35.97°S, 148.77°E); Lake Eucumbene (36.13°S, 148.62°E).
            South Australia: Dawesley Hill (35.04°S, 138.94°E); Kimba (38.13°S, 136.42°E); Leg of Mutton L., Mt. Gambier (37.83°S, 140.77°E).
            Tasmania (Type locality): Babel Farm, Lackrana (40.10°S, 148.20°E) and West End Farm, Leeka (39.87°S, 147.80°E), Flinders Island;
            Bothwell (42.38°S, 147.00°E); Cambridge (42.83°S, 147.33°E); Campbell Town (41.92°S, 147.50°E); Jordan R., Jericho (42.22°S,
            147.17°E); Longford(41.60°S, 147.12°E); New Norfolk (42.77°S, 147.05°E); Lake Dulverton, Oatlands (42.28°S, 147.35°E);
            Sandford (42.94°S, 147.50°E); 6.1 Km Swansea (42.13°S, 148.08°E); Tooms Lake (42.32°S, 148.18°E); Whites Lagoon (42.10°S,
            147.45°E).
            Victoria: Box Hill Gardens Box Hill (Carew et al. 2013); LaTrobe University, Bundoora (Carew et al. 2013); Station Waters,
            Cairnlea (Carew et al. 2013); Cann River (37.57°S, 149.15°E); Newells Paddock Wetlands, Footscray (Carew et al. 2013);
            Heatherton (Carew et al. 2013); 7 Km n. Hepburn Springs (37.26°S, 144.11°E); Lake Boga (35.33°S, 149.17°E); nr. entrance
            You Yangs Park, Lara (37.83°S, 144.33°E); Leslie Manor; Lilydale (37.92°S, 145.17°E); Meredith (37.49°S, 144.30°E);
            Lynbrook Estate Wetlands, Lynbrook (Carew et al. 2013); Sir William Fry Pk, Moorabin (Carew et al. 2013); Spectacle Lake,
            Point Cook (Carew et al. 2013); Roxborough Park (Carew et al. 2013); Streatham (37.68°S, 143.06°E); Wallington (38.20°S,
            144.48°E); Monash Gallery, Wheelers Hill (Carew et al. 2013); Wycheproof (36.08°S, 143.22°E).

Morphologically very similar to C. occidentalis and C. duplex, but is distributed allopatrically to the former and differs from the latter by the generally shorter length of the mid and hind femur and tibia.  As well C. australis tends to have less setae, particularly on the clypeus (35.1 cf. 39.4), GcIX (3-5 cf. 4-16) and segment X (17-32 cf. 28-42), while the ratio of fore Ta4/Ti in C. australis (0.50-0.56) appears to be greater than in both C. duplex (0.38-0.53) and C. occidentalis (0.39-0.42).

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Modified: 28 March 2022
Access: Unrestricted
Copyright © 2005-2022, Jon Martin.