C. circumdatus immatures

Fourth instar larva: medium sized plumosus-type larva.  Length about 11.3-14.3 mm (Fem. 12.7-14.3 mm; Male 11.3-12.3; ventral tubules relatively long, posterior pair coiled (Ant. 1.40-1.92; Post. 1.68-2.44 mm); lateral tubules well developed (280-440 Ám).  Anal tubules relatively long, ventral pair slightly longer (320-360 µm), about 2.7-3.3 times longer than wide.
Ventral Head Length about 280-300 µm.  Gula very dark; frontal apotome only slighly darkened.
Mentum (Fig. c.) with fourth laterals reduced to about the level of the 5th laterals (type II), 6th laterals pointed outwards; c2 teeth of the central tooth (type III) well separated.
Ventromentum (Fig. d.) with about 30-36 striae, inner margins separated by about 56-68 µm.  Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 12-14 moderately broad, regular teeth.
Antenna (Fig. b) with basal segment less than 3.5 times as long as wide; AR about 1.9-2.0; A2/A1 about 0.24; A4/A3 about 2.3-2.6.  Some specimens examined had a four segmented antenna, lacking segment 4 and with segment 5 longer than usual (AR about 2.1).
Premandible with inner tooth about 2-2.4 times the width of the outer tooth, which is also shorter.
Mandible (Fig. e) with 3rd inner tooth well developed, but narrow, and with about 11-15 furrows on outer surface near the base.

Cytology:  4 polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi arm combination AE, BF, CD, G.
Arm G is closely paired, with a small subterminal nucleolus, and three Balbiani rings from the midlle to near the opposite end.
There are nucleoli in arms B (about mid-arm) and arm C (about one third from distal end).
No polymorphism is known in the Australian samples, but sequences B2 and A2, which are less common in Asian populations, are fixed in Australian samples.  Polymorphism is known in arms A, B, C, D, and G of Asian populations.
cirA1:    1-3, 12-4, 13-19                            as pseudothummi (not known in Australia)
cirA2:    1-2c, 10-12, 3-2d, 9-4, 13-19                        as holomelas
cirB1:    Large puff, with distal dark bands (gps. 8 - 7) about the middle of the arm; with nucleolus about one third from centromere.    (not known in Australia)
cirB2:    Large puff in same relative position, but dark bands (gps. 7 - 8) proximal.
cirC1:    Median nucleolus.
cirE1:    1-2, 4-10b, 3e-a, 3f 10c-13
cirF1:    1-2a, 10-2c, 15c-11a, 2b, 15d-23                            as oppositus F3
cirG1:    Nucleolus near one end, three BRs from just distal to the nucleolus (not always visible) to near the other end.

Pupa (Basic description from Asian material) Brown.
Exuviae pale brown.  Body about 6.6-7.7 mm (male) and 6.5-7.6 mm (female).
Frontal tubercles about 70-100 µm, with a subapical seta (40-80 µm).  Thorax rugose, with 2 pairs of precorneal setae.
Abdominal tergite II with median shagreen and about 45 hooklets, tergites III-V entirely with shagreen, tergite VI with T-shaped shagreen, tergites VII-VIII with 2 broad patches of shagreen, and about 3-5 spines on the caudolateral spur of segment VIII.

Chromosome arms A, E and F were described by Saxena (1995) as C. plumatisetigerus, although an error in the arm F pattern is corrected above.

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Modified: 11 July 2022
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