"C. orientalis" immatures

Fourth instar larva: a medium sized plumosus-type larva (length about 11.8 (9-14.3 (female), 10.9 (10.7-11)(male) mm., lab. reared).  Anterior ventral tubules 1.49 (1.24-1.84 mm.), shorter than posterior pair 1.72 (1.40-2.48) mm.
Gula pale or very slightly darkened on posterior third;  frontoclypeus pale to dark.  Clypeal aperture about 3.64 (2.60-4.43) times longer than wide.
Mentum (Fig. b) with square sharp teeth, c2 teeth of central trifid tooth well separated from c1 tooth (type III), 4th laterals slightly to moderately reduced (type I-II); about 0.53-0.59 times the ventral head length.
Ventromentum (Fig. c) about 183 (180-185) µm long and 3.87 (3.72-4.05) times longer than deep, with about 34.2 (31-38) striae; VMR about 0.29 (0.25-0.32); about 1.17 (1.13-1.22) times the mentum width.
Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 16-21 variable but sharp teeth which become smaller at the ends.  Premandible (Fig. b) with teeth about equal, or perhaps outer tooth slightly longer, inner tooth about 2-2.4 times wider than the outer.
Distance between the antennal bases slightly larger than the distance between the S4 setae, which are separated by about 0.82-0.87 of the width of the mentum at that point.
Antenna (Fig. d) with a moderately long basal segment, which is about 3.74 (3.62-4.03) times as long as wide; AR about 1.87 (1.62-2.05).  Antennal proportions: 116 : 34: 9 : 12 : 8.
Distance between the antennal bases slightly larger than the distance between the S4 setae, which are separated by about 0.82-0.87 of the width of the mentum at that point.
Mandible (Fig. e) with third inner tooth only slightly darkened (Type IA/B), and with about 13.1 (12-14) grooves on outer surface near the base; MTR about 0.35 (0.32-0.38); 11.8 (10-13) taeniae in Pecten mandibularis.

Pupa: Exuvia length about 7.4 (7.2-7.8) mm; inner margin of wing case 1.45-1.54 mm.  Cephalic tubercles (see below) variable, length from 23-38 µm, with subterminal setae about 56-61 µm long.  Basal ring of respiratory horn kidney shaped, about 124-137 µm long and 56-68 µm wide, HR 2.0-2.2.
Small Pedes spurii B and about 68-72 recurved hooks on abdominal segment II; well developed Pedes spurii A on segment IV, about 34 µm long and 24 µm wide (l/w 1.4).  Caudolateral spur (see below) of segment VIII with 1.8 (1, 2 or sometimes 3) spines, the additional spines reduced in size.  Anal fringe with about 65 (44-86) taeniae in multiple rows.

Pupa of C. "orientalis"
Cephalic tubules (above) and spur, with a single spine (below).

Cytology:  4 polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi arm combination AE, BF, CD, G.
Nucleolus virtually terminal in arm G;  well developed Balbiani ring (BR) about one third from the other end, and a smaller BR close to this other end;  closely paired.  No nucleolus in long chromosomes.
Irradiation experiments indicated only that the MD region was not on the CD chromosome.
"orl"A1:    1 - 2c, 10 - 12, 3 - 2d, 9 - 4, 13 - 19                as holomelas
"orl"B1:    Puff of group 7 near middle of the arm with dark bands distal of it.
"orl"C1:    Characteristic groups 3-4 about one third from distal end of the arm.
"orl"E1:    1 - 3e, 10b - 3f, 10c - 13                                                                    as halophilis, etc.
"orl"F1:    (possibly) 1 - 2a, 10a-d, 15 - 14e, 9 - 2b, 11 - 14d, 16 - 23          from flaviplumus by In14d-9.
"orl"G1:    Subterminal nucleolus, median and distal BRs.

Chromosome arms A, E and F of a "C. samoensis" were described by Wülker et al. (1989) based on Japanese specimens, but are probably C. flaviplumus.  The sequences of arms A and F of Australian specimens are not the same, although closely related to the Japanese material.  The major differences are the absence of a nucleolus in arm F, arm A differing by a complex inversion, and arm F possibly by a simple inversion.
There are features of the polytene chromosome banding pattern that indicate relationship to other members of the C. samoensis complex (Martin 2011b).  However it differs from C. samoensis by the nucleolar content and position, lacking nucleoli on the long chromosomes and having a terminal nucleolus in arm G.
Similarly there are differences to the members of this group from India.

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Modified: 28 April 2020
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