Species 4b. C. striatipennis Kieffer 1910.

Original identified as C. strenzkei Fittkau, 1968, but morphological, cytological and DNA analysis revealed that C. strenzkei was a junior synonym of C. striatipennis (Martin 2017).
In Bold Bin: BOLDABZ2474

Adult:
Material from California was described by Sublette and Mulla (2000). Information below is for the California material, but supplemented by data from other populations of this widely distributed species.


Male terminalia (left), superior volsella (right) and wing (below) of C. striatipennis

Male:
Head – Cephalic tubules long, about 65 x 18 µm (3.7x longer than wide); about 16 clypeal setae; palp proportions (µm) 60 : 35 : 145 : 160 : 225.
Wing length 2.04-2.18 mm; AR 2.71-2.95; LR 1.69-1.78.
Thoracic setae: Acrostichal abt 9-15; Dorsocentral 12-17; Prealar 4-5; Scutellar 2-4 in anterior row, 8-14 in posterior row.
Abdomenal setae: TIX 2-6; SV 12-15; IV 22-24, simple.
Wings (see above) with a pattern of dark markings.
Leg lengths and ratios (µm):
 
 
Fe
Ti
Ta1
Ta2
Ta3
Ta4
Ta5
LR
F/T
BR
PI
1130
930
1610
880
615
470
265
1.69-1.78
1.18-1.21
4.5-5.0
PII
1180
1090
670
400
275
195
145
0.62-0.63
1.04-1.12
 
PIII
1260
1350
990
595
445
266
170
0.72-0.74
0.93-1.01
 

Anal point narrow; Superior volsella closest to type E(h) of Strenzke (1959).  Inferior volsella bending towards the centerline and reaching about to the end of the anal point.  Gonostyle narrowing fairly sharply about 1/3 from distal end.

Pupa: (based on South American specimens)

Length 5.5-9.8 mm.  Exuvia dark brown, shagreen darker on posterior of tergites IV-VI.
Cephalic tubercles about 80 µm long and 65 µm in diameter at the base.
Prealar tubercle present, not simple, but small, about 25 &3181;m long and 6 &3181;m wide. Basal ring of respiratory horn with edge thicker at the anterior end, and pinched at the centre, about 119-126 &3181;m long and 60-63 &3181;m wide.  There are about 3 rough short spines immediately anterior to the basal ring, and a large, possibly muscle scar just posterior to it.
Abdomen:  About 62-72 recurved hooks on posterior margin of segment II, the hook row covering about 55% of the width of the segment.  Pedes spurii B on segment II, and pedes spurii A on segment IV, while those of segment V and VI are small and mainly identifiable by the spinules.
Caudolateral spur of segment VIII with usually 1 main spine, but also one or two small lateral spines.  Anal lobe with about 53-72 taeniae on each side, mostly in a single row.

Larva: (based mainly on South American specimens) a small plumosus-type, length about 9.3-11.3 mm, lateral tubules about 280-360 µm, ventral tubules long, coiled, posterior pair usually longer (Ant. 1.40-1.68; post. 1.44-1.84 mm).  Anal tubules relatively short (160 x 60 µm), about 2.5 times longer than wide.
Head capsule with pale to slightly dark gula, frontoclypeus pale to slightly dark.
Teeth of mentum (Fig. c) with flanges, c2 teeth of the central trifid group moderately well separated (type IB or III), 4th laterals slightly reduced (type I+).
Ventromentum (Fig. d) with about 34-35 striae, VMR about 0.32-0.36.  Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 11-13 even sharp teeth.
Antenna (Fig. b) with basal segment about 3-3.1 times longer than wide, RO about middle of the segment, AR about 1.62- 1.77; relative lengths of segments 92 : 28 : 8 : 12 : 8.
Premandible with relatively narrow sharp teeth, outer longer, inner tooth about 1.8x width of outer tooth and with an obvious narrow outer edge.
Mandible (Fig. e) also with flared teeth and with a characteristic, relatively long, sharp dorsal tooth; 3rd inner tooth partially separated and colored (type IIB); about 13-14 furrows near base, pecten mandibularis with about 8-13 filaments.

Cytology:  4 polytene chromosomes with the pseudothummi arm combination: AE, BF, CD, G.
Arm G closely paired with a subterminal nucleolus which may have a very close Balbiani ring.  No nucleoli in the long chromosomes.  In Asia, the species is highly polymorphic.
stpA1:    1 - 2c, 11 - 7, 4 - 6, 2d - 3, 12 - 19
stpB:    Bulb of group 7 not obvious, does not appear to be one of the Indian sequences.
stpC:    no sequence available.
stpD:    no sequence available.
stpE1:    1a -- 13g                                                                                                                i.e. Standard
stpF1:    1 - 2a, 15e - 11f, 2b - 15f-a, 11a-e, 16 - 23
stpG1:    subterminal nucleolus

Found:-Type localities: India - Bhim tal and Kumaon, Uttar Pradesh.
            California - El Segundo, Los Angeles Co. (Sublette & Mulla 2000)
            Brasil - Manaus; Belém. (Fittkau 1968)
            Peru - Pucallpa (Fittkau 1968).
            also Japan, Singapore, Thailand and other south-east Asian countries.

Shallow pools with high nutrient content (e.g. algae-rich puddles in the bottom of dugout canoes).  Larval habitat in California was not determined, but adults were collected in the vicinity of a wastewater treatment plant.

Adult redescribed and immatures described by Chaudhuri, Das & Sublette (1992) for Indian material, while Sasa (1978) and Sasa & Hasegawa (1983) redescribed Japanese material as C. kiiensis.  Morphology described as C. strenzkeiby Fittkau (1968), while Sublette & Mulla (2000) have identified the species in southern California, suggesting it was a recent hitchhiker from South America as it had not been found in earlier surveys - since it is not native to South America, it is just as likely that it is a separate introduction from the region of Japan.  They also state that the cytology had been studied by Wülker and Morath (1989), but that paper only notes that it has the pseudothummi-complex arm combination and the banding pattern is not related to other South American species they studied.

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Modified: 4 April 2021
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