Species i. C. atrella (Townes, 1945)

Tendipes (Tendipes) atrella - Townes 1945
C. nr. anthracinus - Butler et al. (1995)

For the C. atrella of Hitchcock and Anderson (1968) - see C. quinnitukqut

In BOLD Bin: BOLD:AAG5507

Adult:

Male (based on Townes (1945):
Wing length 4.1 mm, AR 3.9, anterior LR 1.35, body slender.
Blackish brown; wing vein r-m slightly darker, legs brown, foretarsis with long sparse beard.
Frontal tubercles of small, clypeus of medium size.


Male terminalia of C. atrella (left)
with superior volsella (right)

Genitalia similar to that of C. decorus but anal point narrower and SVo shorter and stouter; about 5 setae in separate pale patches on IXth tergite, style narrows relatively sharply over distal third.

Female: Not described, but some characters from a photograph in BOLD database:
Antennae, thorax and postnotum blackish, scutellum yellowish, abdominal segments dark brown with a light posterior band which becomes larger from segment III; legs yellowish with darkened knees, and slight darkening at distal ends of the segments; wings pale, with slightly darkened crossvein.

Pupa: pupal spur with only one or two major spines, but may be two more smaller lateral spines.


Pupal spur of C. atrella

Larva a small to medium plumosus type (len. female abt 9.4 - 16.7 mm; male 10.4 - 11.4 mm), ventral tubules moderately long (ant. 0.84-2.9 mm; post. 0.95-3.45 mm) with posterior pair generally longer.  Posterolateral tubules well developed, 200-400 µm.  Anal tubules relatively long, often partially bilobed, dorsal and ventral pair approximately the same size, length about 633-660 µm, and 3.7 to 4.2 times longer than wide.
Gular region slightly darkened on posterior third or occasionally half, frontoclypeus pale.
Mentum (Fig. c) with rounded teeth, c1 tooth rather narrow, c2 teeth moderately seperated (type IB or III, but often worn); 4th laterals reduced part way or completely to level of 5th laterals (type I-II).
Ventromental plates (Fig. d)separated by about 29-33% of mentum width, with about 39-51 striae; VMR about 0.33-0.35.  Pecten epipharyngis (Fig. a) with about 11 - 14 relatively broad teeth (type B).
Premandible with inner tooth 3-4 times wider than outer tooth.
Antenna (Fig. b) with basal segment about 3.5-4.7 times longer than wide, RO about 2/5 -1/2 up from the base; AR about 2.1-3.2; segment lengths (micron): 144 : 34 : 11 : 13: 7.  The relative lengths of the segments varies considerably in larvae from different areas, a New Mexico larva having a much longer antenna, while a Californian rearing had a shorter antenna, the differences not being obviously related to overall larval size.
Distance between the antennal bases generally less than that between the S4 setae, S4 setae separated by 80-90% of the width of the frontoclypeus.
Mandible (Fig. e) with 3rd inner tooth generally only partly separated and colored (type IIB), and about 14-19 furrows on outer surface at base, about 10-13 setae in the Pecten mandibularis.

Cytology:  4 relatively short polytene chromosomes with thummi arm combination, AB, CD, EF, G.
Centromeres not heterochromatic.  Arm G very short and paired only at the terminal nucleolus, sometimes end-to-end.
Large nucleolus in arm B and a smaller one in arm F at about group 11.    Arm C unpaired in some specimens.
Polymorphism in all arms except G.

atrA1:    1a - e, 2d - 3, 12 - 10, 2c - 1f, 9 - 4, 13 - 19
atrA2:    1a - e, 8 - 9, 1f - 2c, 10 - 12, 3 - 2d, 7 - 4, 13 - 19
atrB1:    Puff (group 7) generally not developed, but is near distal end of arm.
atrC1:    1 - 3, 8 - 11c, 4a - i, 6b - 5, 15 - 11d, 6gh, 17a - 16, 7d - a, 6f - c, 17b - 22
atr C2:    1 - 3, 4g - a, 11c - 8 4b - i, 6b - 5, 15 - 11d, 6gh, 17a - 16, 7d - a, 6f - c, 17b - 22
atrC3:    1 - 3, 8 - 11c, 4a - i, 6b - 5, 12 - 15e, 11h - d, 6gh, 17a - 16, 7d - a, 6f - c, 17b - 22
atrC4:    1 - 3, 4f - a, 11c - 8, 4g - i, 6b - 5, 12 - 15e, 11h - d, 6gh, 17a - 16, 7d - a, 6f - c, 17b - 22
atrD1:    1 - 3, 11 - 18d, 7 - 4, 10 - 8(7e), 18e - 24;                                                      ie. as in longistylus
atrD2:    1 - 3, 17 - 11, 18a - d,7d - 4, 10 - 7e, 18e - 24
atr D3:    1 - 3e, 5d - 4, 10e - a, 7 - 5e, 11 - 15d, 18d - 15e, 3fg, 9 - 8, 18e - 24
atrE1:    1a - 3e, 10b - 3f, 10c - 13g;                                                                                ie. as in aprilinus
atrE2:    1a - e 10b - 9, 7 - 8, 6 - 3f, 10c - 13
atrF1:    1a - f, 9 - 3c, 14 - 10, 1g - 3b, 15 - 23
atrF2:    1a - f, 9 - 3c, 14h - a, 16 - 15, 3b - 1g, 10 - 13, 17 - 23
atrF3:    1a - f, 9 - 5d, 13 - 14, 3c - 5c 12 - 10, 1g - 3b, 15 - 23
atrF4:    approx: 1a - f, 9 - 6, 15 - 16, 14a - h, 3c - 5, 3b - 1g, 10 - 13, 17 - 23                  ie. inv of F2
atrG1:    Short with terminal nucleolus and BR near other end

Found: Alberta - Nordegg (Paratype - Townes 1945)
            Ontario - 'Copanspin Farm' Dunrobin (45.42°N, 75.87°W); 0.5 ml e. Dunrobin (45.42°N, 75.86°W); South March nr Mud Lake (44.88°N, 78.27°W);
            Hogs Back (45.37°N, 75.70°W), Ottawa (all Carleton Co.).
            Manitoba - Aweme, Caroll (Paratypes - Townes 1945); Lake Winnipeg (Sæther 2012)
            Prince Edward Island - Brackley Beach, Canadian National Park (Paratype - Townes 1945)
            California - Tahoe City (Paratype - Townes 1945); Lake Davis, Plumas Co.; Fish hatchery Spring Valley, San Diego Co.
            Colorado -Denver; Fort Collins (Paratypes - Townes 1945).
            Indiana - Crooked Lake, Noble Co.
            Massachusetts - Oak Bluffs (Paratype - Townes 1945).
            Minnesota - Lake Christina (46.08°N, 95.75°W), Douglas Co.; Anderson II WPA wetland, Audubon (46.86°N, 95.98°W), Becker Co.
            Nevada - Reno (Type locality)
            New Mexico - Eagle Nest Lake (36.55°N, 105.25°W), Colfax Co.
            North Dakota - Fuller Lake; Larimore Dam, Grand Forks Co.; McVille Dam, Nelson Co.; Warsing Dam, Eddy Co.
            South Dakota - Brookings, Erwin (Paratypes - Townes 1945).
            Wisconsin - Reader Farm (45.07°N, 89.42°W), Madison, Dane Co.

            Prairie sloughs, larger pools, and lakes in depths of 0.9-13.5 m.

Species Ea of Butler, and then C. nr. anthracinus of Butler et al. (1995).  Polytene chromosomes fully described by Martin et al. (2006).  Some of the differences of morphological characters from different localities may be related to the different combinations of chromosome sequences noted between populations, some of which appeared to be related to the depth of the habitat (Martin et al. 2006).

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Modified: 22 July 2021
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